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Open AccessArticle

Determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA), Ochratoxin B (OTB), T-2, and HT-2 Toxins in Wheat Grains, Wheat Flour, and Bread in Lebanon by LC-MS/MS

1
Department of Natural Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese American University, P.O. Box 13-5053, Beirut 1102-2801, Lebanon
2
Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, American University of Science and Technology, Achrafieh 16-6452, Lebanon
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11080471
Received: 7 July 2019 / Revised: 2 August 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Cereals are prone to fungal infection during growth, harvesting, transportation, and/or storage. As a result, cereals such as wheat grains and wheat-derived products may be contaminated with mycotoxins leading to acute and chronic health exposure. The current study investigated the presence of the mycotoxins: ochratoxin A (OTA), ochratoxin B (OTB), T-2, and HT-2 toxins in samples of wheat grains (n = 50), wheat flour (n = 50), and bread (n = 37) from the main mills in Lebanon using LC-MS/MS. Accuracy ranged from 98–100%, recoveries from 93–105%, and intraday and interday precision were 5–7% and 9–12%, respectively. The tested wheat grains, wheat flour, and bread samples did not contain detectable levels of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and OTB. Four wheat flour samples (8% of flour samples) showed positive OTA levels ranging from 0.6–3.4 μg·kg−1 with an arithmetic mean of 1.9 ± 0.2 μg·kg−1. Only one sample contained an OTA concentration greater than the limit set by the European Union (3 μg·kg−1) for wheat-derived products. This study suggests that mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains, wheat flour, and bread in Lebanon is currently not a serious public health concern. However, surveillance strategies and monitoring programs must be routinely implemented to ensure minimal mycotoxin contamination of wheat-based products. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ochratoxin A; ochratoxin B; T-2 toxin; HT-2 toxin; wheat; flour; bread; Lebanon Ochratoxin A; ochratoxin B; T-2 toxin; HT-2 toxin; wheat; flour; bread; Lebanon
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Elaridi, J.; Yamani, O.; Al Matari, A.; Dakroub, S.; Attieh, Z. Determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA), Ochratoxin B (OTB), T-2, and HT-2 Toxins in Wheat Grains, Wheat Flour, and Bread in Lebanon by LC-MS/MS. Toxins 2019, 11, 471.

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