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Open AccessArticle

Contrasting Toxin Selectivity between the Marine Pufferfish Takifugu pardalis and the Freshwater Pufferfish Pao suvattii

1
Graduate School of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Nagasaki University. 1-14, Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
2
National Fisheries University, Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency. 2-7-1, Nagatahonmachi, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 759-6595, Japan
3
Nifrel, Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan. 2-1, Senribanpakukoen, Suita, Osaka 565-0826, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11080470
Received: 10 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 10 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isolation and Characterization of Marine Toxins)
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Abstract

To clarify the differences in toxin selectivity between marine and freshwater pufferfish, we conducted experiments in artificially reared nontoxic specimens of Takifugu pardalis (marine) and Pao suvattii (freshwater) using tetrodotoxin (TTX) and paralytic shellfish poison (PSP; decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) or saxitoxin (STX)). T. pardalis specimens were administered feed homogenate containing TTX or dcSTX (dose of toxin, 55.2 nmol/fish) and P. suvattii specimens were administered feed homogenate containing TTX + STX (dose of each toxin, 19.2 nmol/fish) by oral gavage. The toxin content in the intestine, muscle, skin, liver, and gonads was quantified after 24 and 48 or 72 h. In T. pardalis, TTX administered into the intestine was absorbed into the body and transferred and retained mainly in the skin and liver, while dcSTX was hardly retained in the body, although it partly remained in the intestine. In strong contrast, in P. suvattii, little TTX remained in the body, whereas STX was absorbed into the body and was transferred and retained in the ovary and skin. The findings revealed that TTX/PSP selectivity differs between the marine species T. pardalis and the freshwater species P. suvattii. T. pardalis, which naturally harbors TTX, selectively accumulates TTX, and P. suvattii, which naturally harbors PSP, selectively accumulates PSP. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin (TTX); paralytic shellfish poison (PSP); saxitoxin (STX); pufferfish; Takifugu pardalis; Pao suvattii tetrodotoxin (TTX); paralytic shellfish poison (PSP); saxitoxin (STX); pufferfish; Takifugu pardalis; Pao suvattii
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Gao, W.; Kanahara, Y.; Yamada, M.; Tatsuno, R.; Yoshikawa, H.; Doi, H.; Takatani, T.; Arakawa, O. Contrasting Toxin Selectivity between the Marine Pufferfish Takifugu pardalis and the Freshwater Pufferfish Pao suvattii. Toxins 2019, 11, 470.

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