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Open AccessArticle

Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Ocean Warming: Bioaccumulation and Ecotoxicological Responses in Juvenile Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata)

IPMA—Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, I.P., Av. Doutor Alfredo Magalhães Ramalho, nº 6, 1495-165 Algés, Portugal
CIIMAR—Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos S/N, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Guia Marine Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon (FCUL), Av. Nossa Senhora do Cabo, 939, 2750-374 Cascais, Portugal
IPMA—Portuguese Institute for the Ocean and Atmosphere, EPPO-Aquaculture Research Station, 8700-305 Olhão, Portugal
CCMAR—Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus of Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(7), 408;
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biotoxins and Seafood Poisoning)
Warmer seawater temperatures are expected to increase harmful algal blooms (HABs) occurrence, intensity, and distribution. Yet, the potential interactions between abiotic stressors and HABs are still poorly understood from ecological and seafood safety perspectives. The present study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the bioaccumulation/depuration mechanisms and ecotoxicological responses of juvenile gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) under different temperatures (18, 21, 24 °C). PST were detected in fish at the peak of the exposure period (day five, 0.22 µg g−1 N-sulfocarbamoylGonyautoxin-1-2 (C1 and C2), 0.08 µg g−1 Decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and 0.18 µg g−1 Gonyautoxin-5 (B1)), being rapidly eliminated (within the first 24 h of depuration), regardless of exposure temperature. Increased temperatures led to significantly higher PST contamination (275 µg STX eq. kg−1). During the trial, fish antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione S-transferase, GST) in both muscle and viscera were affected by temperature, whereas a significant induction of heat shock proteins (HSP70), Ubiquitin (Ub) activity (viscera), and lipid peroxidation (LPO; muscle) was observed under the combination of warming and PST exposure. The differential bioaccumulation and biomarker responses observed highlight the need to further understand the interactive effects between PST and abiotic stressors, to better estimate climate change impacts on HABs events, and to develop mitigation strategies to overcome the potential risks associated with seafood consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: Paralytic shellfish toxin; warming; fish; seafood safety; ecotoxicological responses Paralytic shellfish toxin; warming; fish; seafood safety; ecotoxicological responses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barbosa, V.; Santos, M.; Anacleto, P.; Maulvault, A.L.; Pousão-Ferreira, P.; Costa, P.R.; Marques, A. Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Ocean Warming: Bioaccumulation and Ecotoxicological Responses in Juvenile Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata). Toxins 2019, 11, 408.

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