Next Article in Journal
Emerging Marine Biotoxins
Next Article in Special Issue
Intramuscular Ricin Poisoning of Mice Leads to Widespread Damage in the Heart, Spleen, and Bone Marrow
Previous Article in Journal
Mycotoxins at the Start of the Food Chain in Costa Rica: Analysis of Six Fusarium Toxins and Ochratoxin A between 2013 and 2017 in Animal Feed and Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products
Previous Article in Special Issue
Epoxyscillirosidine Induced Cytotoxicity and Ultrastructural Changes in a Rat Embryonic Cardiomyocyte (H9c2) Cell Line
Open AccessArticle

Xanthium strumarium Fruit Extract Inhibits ATG4B and Diminishes the Proliferation and Metastatic Characteristics of Colorectal Cancer Cells

1
Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
2
Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
3
Drug Development and Value Creation Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
4
Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 81362, Taiwan
5
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 813, Taiwan
6
Department of Colorectal Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83341, Taiwan
7
Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 81362, Taiwan
8
Department of Pharmacy, Kinmen Hospital, Kinmen 89142, Taiwan
9
Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
10
School of Medicine for International Students, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contribute equally to this work.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060313
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 2 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Toxic and Pharmacological Effect of Plant Toxins)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved pathway to degrade damaged proteins and organelles for subsequent recycling in cells during times of nutrient deprivation. This process plays an important role in tumor development and progression, allowing cancer cells to survive in nutrient-poor environments. The plant kingdom provides a powerful source for new drug development to treat cancer. Several plant extracts induce autophagy in cancer cells. However, little is known about the role of plant extracts in autophagy inhibition, particularly autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. In this study, we employed S-tagged gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor associated protein like 2 (GABARAPL2) as a reporter to screen 48 plant extracts for their effects on the activity of autophagy protease ATG4B. Xanthium strumarium and Tribulus terrestris fruit extracts were validated as potential ATG4B inhibitors by another reporter substrate MAP1LC3B-PLA2. The inhibitory effects of the extracts on cellular ATG4B and autophagic flux were further confirmed. Moreover, the plant extracts significantly reduced colorectal cancer cell viability and sensitized cancer cells to starvation conditions. The fruit extract of X. strumarium consistently diminished cancer cell migration and invasion. Taken together, the results showed that the fruit of X. strumarium may have an active ingredient to inhibit ATG4B and suppress the proliferation and metastatic characteristics of colorectal cancer cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: medicinal plant; autophagy; ATG4B; colorectal cancer medicinal plant; autophagy; ATG4B; colorectal cancer
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, H.-W.; Liu, P.-F.; Tsai, W.-L.; Hu, W.-H.; Hu, Y.-C.; Yang, H.-C.; Lin, W.-Y.; Weng, J.-R.; Shu, C.-W. Xanthium strumarium Fruit Extract Inhibits ATG4B and Diminishes the Proliferation and Metastatic Characteristics of Colorectal Cancer Cells. Toxins 2019, 11, 313.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop