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Monitoring of Fusarium Species and Trichothecene Genotypes Associated with Fusarium Head Blight on Wheat in Hebei Province, China
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Molecular Phylogenetic Relationships, Trichothecene Chemotype Diversity and Aggressiveness of Strains in a Global Collection of Fusarium graminearum Species

1
Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, 222 Agriculture Building, 66 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
2
Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, BIO441 Biological Sciences, 4110 Libra Drive, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050263
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
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Abstract

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused principally by the species belonging to the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC), is an important disease in wheat, barley, and other small grain crops worldwide. Grain infected with species in the FGSC may be contaminated with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). In this study, we characterized the phylogenetic relationships, chemotype diversity, phenotypic characters, and aggressiveness of 150 strains in FGSC collected from eight different countries. Phylogenetic analysis based on portions of translation elongation factor 1-α (EF-1α) gene from 150 strains revealed six species in the FGSC, F. graminearum s.s, F. asiaticum, F. meridionale, F. cortaderiae, F. boothii, and F. austroamericanum. In this collection, 50% of the strains were 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 35% were 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15% were NIV. Evaluation of strains on moderately resistant (MR) wheat cultivar Carberry indicated that there is no significant difference among the species for FHB disease severity (DS), fusarium damaged kernel percentage (FDK%) and DON production. However, significant differences were observed among the chemotypes. Results showed significantly higher FHB DS, FDK%, DON production, growth rates, and macroconidia production for the 3-ADON strains than the 15-ADON and NIV strains. In addition, significant differences for FHB response variables were observed among the strains from different countries. Our results demonstrate that type and amount of trichothecene produced by a strain play a key role in determining the level of aggressiveness of that particular strain, regardless of the species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium Head Blight; mycotoxins; 3-ADON; 15-ADON; NIV; FGSC; trichothecene; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; phylogenetics; wheat; F. graminearum s.s; F. asiaticum; F. meridionale; F. cortaderiae; F. boothii and F. austroamericanum; EF-1α gene Fusarium Head Blight; mycotoxins; 3-ADON; 15-ADON; NIV; FGSC; trichothecene; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; phylogenetics; wheat; F. graminearum s.s; F. asiaticum; F. meridionale; F. cortaderiae; F. boothii and F. austroamericanum; EF-1α gene
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Amarasinghe, C.; Sharanowski, B.; Fernando, W.D. Molecular Phylogenetic Relationships, Trichothecene Chemotype Diversity and Aggressiveness of Strains in a Global Collection of Fusarium graminearum Species. Toxins 2019, 11, 263.

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