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Open AccessArticle

Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Content Is Highly Associated with Deoxynivalenol Levels in Two-Row Barley Genotypes of Importance to Canadian Barley Breeding Programs

1
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Brandon Research and Development Centre, 2701 Grand Valley Road, P.O. Box 1000A, R.R. 3, Brandon, MB R7A 5Y3, Canada
2
Department of Plant Science, 66 Dafoe Road, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
3
Grain Research Laboratory, Canadian Grain Commission, 303 Main St., Winnipeg, MB R3C 3G8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060319
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a multipurpose crop that can be harvested as grain or cut prior to maturity for use as forage. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of barley that reduces quality of grain. FHB can also result in the accumulation of mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Breeding FHB resistant varieties has been a long-term goal of many barley-producing countries, including Canada. While the genetic basis of DON detoxification via production of less-phytotoxic conjugates such as DON-3-glucoside (DON3G) is well documented in barley, little information exists in reference to varietal response. Over two years, 16 spring, two-row barley genotypes, of importance to western Canadian barley breeding programs, were grown as short-rows and inoculated following spike emergence with a Fusarium graminearum conidia suspension. Half of the plots were harvested at soft dough stage and then dissected into rachis and grain components, whereas the remainder was harvested at maturity. Multiple Fusarium-mycotoxins were assayed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mycotoxin content was elevated at the earlier harvest point, especially in the rachis tissue. DON3G constituted a significant percentage (26%) of total trichothecene content and thus its co-occurrence with DON should be considered by barley industries. DON3G was highly correlated with DON and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON). The ratio of D3G/DON exhibited consistency across genotypes, however more-resistant genotypes were characterized by a higher ratio at the soft-dough stage followed by a decrease at maturity. Plant breeding practices that use DON content as a biomarker for resistance would likely result in the development of barley cultivars with lower total DON-like compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hordeum vulgare; barley; Fusarium head blight; Fusarium graminearum; trichothecene; deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside; DON; FHB Hordeum vulgare; barley; Fusarium head blight; Fusarium graminearum; trichothecene; deoxynivalenol; deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside; DON; FHB
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Tucker, J.R.; Badea, A.; Blagden, R.; Pleskach, K.; Tittlemier, S.A.; Fernando, W.G.D. Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Content Is Highly Associated with Deoxynivalenol Levels in Two-Row Barley Genotypes of Importance to Canadian Barley Breeding Programs. Toxins 2019, 11, 319.

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