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Toxins 2019, 11(4), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040211

15N Stable Isotope Labeling PSTs in Alexandrium minutum for Application of PSTs as Biomarker

1
College of Marine Science and Biological Engineering, Qingdao University of Science & Technology, Qingdao 266042, China
2
Key Laboratory for Biochemical Engineering of Shandong Province, Qingdao 266042, China
3
College of Food Science and Technology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
4
Shandong Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Qingdao 266000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Toxicological Challenges of Aquatic Toxins)
PDF [540 KB, uploaded 8 April 2019]
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Abstract

The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum (A. minutum) which can produce paralytic
shellfish toxins (PSTs) is often used as a model to study the migration, biotransformation,
accumulation, and removal of PSTs. However, the mechanism is still unclear. To provide a new tool
for related studies, we tried to label PSTs metabolically with
15N stable isotope to obtain 15N-PSTs
instead of original
14N, which could be treated as biomarker on PSTs metabolism. We then cultured
the
A. minutum AGY-H46 which produces toxins GTX1-4 in f/2 medium of different 15N/P
concentrations. The
15N-PSTs’ toxicity and toxin profile were detected. Meanwhile, the 15N labeling
abundance and
15N atom number of 15N-PSTs were identified. The 14N of PSTs produced by A.
minutum
can be successfully replaced by 15N, and the f/2 medium of standard 15N/P concentration
was the best choice in terms of the species’ growth, PST profile,
15N labeling result and experiment
cost. After many (>15) generations, the
15N abundance in PSTs extract reached 82.36%, and the 15N
atom number introduced into GTX1-4 might be 4–6. This paper innovatively provided the initial
evidence that
15N isotope application of labeling PSTs in A. minutum is feasible. The 15N-PSTs as
biomarker can be applied and provide further information on PSTs metabolism.

Keywords: Alexandrium minutum; dinoflagellate; paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs); 15N stable isotope labeling; biomarker Alexandrium minutum; dinoflagellate; paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs); 15N stable isotope labeling; biomarker
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Xie, W.; Li, M.; Song, L.; Zhang, R.; Hu, X.; Liang, C.; Yang, X. 15N Stable Isotope Labeling PSTs in Alexandrium minutum for Application of PSTs as Biomarker. Toxins 2019, 11, 211.

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