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Toxins 2019, 11(4), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040220

Toxicity of Cyanopeptides from Two Microcystis Strains on Larval Development of Astyanax altiparanae

1
Natural Resources Institute, Federal University of Itajubá, 1303 BPS Avenue, Itajubá, MG 37500-903, Brazil
2
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, 580 Professor Lineu Prestes Avenue, São Paulo, SP 05508-000, Brazil
3
Federal Institute of Education Science and Technology of Rio de Janeiro, Washington Luis Highway, Niteroi, RJ 24310-000, Brazil
4
National Center for Research and Conservation of Continentals’ Fish—CEPTA, SP-201 (Pref. Euberto Nemésio Pereira de Godoy—Motorway), Km 6.5, Pirassununga, SP 13630-970, Brazil
5
Faculty of Technology, State University of Campinas, 1888 Paschoal Marmo Street, Limeira, SP 13484-332, Brazil
6
Bruker Daltonics Corporation, Condomínio BBP—Barão de Mauá, Atibaia, SP 12954-260, Brazil
7
Institute of Life and Earth Sciences (ILES), Center for Marine Biodiversity & Biotechnology (CMBB), The School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society (EGIS), Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 31 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Toxicological Challenges of Aquatic Toxins)
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Abstract

Absorption and accumulation of bioavailable cyanobacterial metabolites (including cyanotoxins) are likely in fish after senescence and the rupturing of cells during bloom episodes. We determined the toxicity of cyanopeptides identified from two strains of Microcystis (M. panniformis MIRS-04 and M. aeruginosa NPDC-01) in a freshwater tropical fish, Astyanax altiparanae (yellowtail tetra, lambari). Aqueous extracts of both Microcystis strains were prepared in order to simulate realistic fish exposure to these substances in a freshwater environment. Both strains were selected because previous assays evidenced the presence of microcystins (MCs) in MIRS-04 and lack of cyanotoxins in NPDC-01. Identification of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites was performed by LC-HR-QTOF-MS and quantification of the MC-LR was carried out by LC-QqQ-MS/MS. MIRS-04 produces the MCs MC-LR, MC-LY and MC-HilR as well as micropeptins B, 973, 959 and k139. NPCD-01 biosynthetizes microginins FR1, FR2/FR4 and SD-755, but does not produce MCs. Larval fish survival and changes in morphology were assessed for 96 h exposure to aqueous extracts of both strains at environmentally relevant concentrations from 0.1 to 0.5 mg (dry weight)/mL, corresponding to 0.15 to 0.74 μg/mL of MC-LR (considering dried amounts of MIRS-04 for comparison). Fish mortality increased with concentration and time of exposure for both strains of Microcystis. The frequencies of morphological abnormalities increased with concentration in both strains, and included abdominal and pericardial oedema, and spinal curvature. Results demonstrate that toxicity was not solely caused by MCs, other classes of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites contributed to the observed toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacterial peptides; mass spectrometry; microcystins; Astyanax; morphological alteration; GNPS cyanobacterial peptides; mass spectrometry; microcystins; Astyanax; morphological alteration; GNPS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Fernandes, K.; Gomes, A.; Calado, L.; Yasui, G.; Assis, D.; Henry, T.; Fonseca, A.; Pinto, E. Toxicity of Cyanopeptides from Two Microcystis Strains on Larval Development of Astyanax altiparanae. Toxins 2019, 11, 220.

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