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Toxins 2019, 11(3), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030165

Variation of Fungal Metabolites in Sorghum Malts Used to Prepare Namibian Traditional Fermented Beverages Omalodu and Otombo

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Namibia, Windhoek 10005, Namibia
2
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Namibia, Windhoek 10005, Namibia
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Namibia, Windhoek 10005, Namibia
4
Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agro Biotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
5
Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Abstract

Sorghum malts, which are important ingredients in traditional fermented beverages, are commonly infected by mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins may transfer into the beverages, risking consumers’ health. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine variation of fungal metabolites in 81 sorghum malts processed for brewing of Namibian beverages, otombo (n = 45) and omalodu (n = 36). Co-occurrence of European Union (EU)-regulated mycotoxins, such as patulin, aflatoxins (B1, B2, and G2), and fumonisins (B1, B2, and B3) was detected in both malts with a prevalence range of 2–84%. Aflatoxin B1 was quantified in omalodu (44%) and otombo malts (14%), with 20% of omalodu malts and 40% of otombo malts having levels above the EU allowable limit. Fumonisin B1 was quantified in both omalodu (84%) and otombo (42%) malts. Emerging mycotoxins, aflatoxin precursors, and ergot alkaloids were quantified in both malts. Notably, 102 metabolites were quantified in both malts, with 96% in omalodu malts and 93% in otombo malts. An average of 48 metabolites were quantified in otombo malts while an average of 67 metabolites were quantified in omalodu malts. The study accentuates the need to monitor mycotoxins in sorghum malts intended for brewing and to determine their fate in the beverages. View Full-Text
Keywords: traditional sorghum malts; mycotoxins; aflatoxins; Aspergillus; LC/MS/MS traditional sorghum malts; mycotoxins; aflatoxins; Aspergillus; LC/MS/MS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Nafuka, S.N.; Misihairabgwi, J.M.; Bock, R.; Ishola, A.; Sulyok, M.; Krska, R. Variation of Fungal Metabolites in Sorghum Malts Used to Prepare Namibian Traditional Fermented Beverages Omalodu and Otombo. Toxins 2019, 11, 165.

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