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Toxins 2019, 11(3), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030163

Study on Trichothecene and Zearalenone Presence in Romanian Wheat Relative to Weather Conditions

1
Department of Bromatology, Hygiene, Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 6 Louis Pasteur, 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain
3
Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 6 Louis Pasteur, 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Abstract

To evaluate the influence of weather conditions on mycotoxin presence in wheat, deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3AcDON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15AcDON), fusarenon-X (FUS-X), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), T-2 toxin (T-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), neosolaniol (NEO) and zearalenone (ZEN) were evaluated in 102 Romanian wheat samples coming from five wheat growing areas during 2015. Only six mycotoxins were detected, while FUS-X, DAS, NEO and NIV were not present in the wheat samples. Mycotoxin concentrations were correlated with precipitation and temperature values during anthesis and the preharvest period. Overall, the highest frequency was registered for DON, while the lowest frequency was registered for NIV. In the North Muntenia, DON and ZEN registered high frequencies (68% and 16%, respectively). This region was characterized in June and July by medium to high values of rainfall (41–100 mm/month) and normal temperatures (mean of 20.0 °C in June and 24.0 °C in July), suggesting that precipitation levels influence fungi and mycotoxin development to a greater extent compared to the influence of temperature. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; GC-MS/MS; cereals; Romania; precipitations; air temperature mycotoxins; GC-MS/MS; cereals; Romania; precipitations; air temperature
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Stanciu, O.; Juan, C.; Berrada, H.; Miere, D.; Loghin, F.; Mañes, J. Study on Trichothecene and Zearalenone Presence in Romanian Wheat Relative to Weather Conditions. Toxins 2019, 11, 163.

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