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In-vitro Application of a Qatari Burkholderia cepacia strain (QBC03) in the Biocontrol of Mycotoxigenic Fungi and in the Reduction of Ochratoxin A biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius
Open AccessReview

Use of Competitive Filamentous Fungi as an Alternative Approach for Mycotoxin Risk Reduction in Staple Cereals: State of Art and Future Perspectives

1
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy
2
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, P.O. Box 34441 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
3
Department of Sustainable Crop Production, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(12), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11120701
Received: 21 October 2019 / Revised: 27 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
Among plant fungal diseases, those affecting cereals represent a huge problem in terms of food security and safety. Cereals, such as maize and wheat, are very often targets of mycotoxigenic fungi. The limited availability of chemical plant protection products and physical methods to control mycotoxigenic fungi and to reduce food and feed mycotoxin contamination fosters alternative approaches, such as the use of beneficial fungi as an active ingredient of biological control products. Competitive interactions, including both exploitation and interference competition, between pathogenic and beneficial fungi, are generally recognized as mechanisms to control plant pathogens populations and to manage plant diseases. In the present review, two examples concerning the use of competitive beneficial filamentous fungi for the management of cereal diseases are discussed. The authors retrace the history of the well-established use of non-aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus to prevent aflatoxin contamination in maize and give an overview of the potential use of competitive beneficial filamentous fungi to manage Fusarium Head Blight on wheat and mitigate fusaria toxin contamination. Although important steps have been made towards the development of microorganisms as active ingredients of plant protection products, a reasoned revision of the registration rules is needed to significantly reduce the chemical based plant protection products in agriculture.
Keywords: beneficial filamentous fungi; Aspergillus flavus; Fusarium graminearum; Trichoderma; Fusarium Head Blight; aflatoxin; biocontrol agent; plant protection products; maize; wheat beneficial filamentous fungi; Aspergillus flavus; Fusarium graminearum; Trichoderma; Fusarium Head Blight; aflatoxin; biocontrol agent; plant protection products; maize; wheat
MDPI and ACS Style

Sarrocco, S.; Mauro, A.; Battilani, P. Use of Competitive Filamentous Fungi as an Alternative Approach for Mycotoxin Risk Reduction in Staple Cereals: State of Art and Future Perspectives. Toxins 2019, 11, 701.

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