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Open AccessArticle

Identification of a Killer Toxin from Wickerhamomyces anomalus with β-Glucanase Activity

1
School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
2
HPLC-MS Laboratory, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100568
Received: 5 September 2019 / Revised: 20 September 2019 / Accepted: 26 September 2019 / Published: 28 September 2019
The yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus has several applications in the food industry due to its antimicrobial potential and wide range of biotechnological properties. In particular, a specific strain of Wickerhamomyces anomalus isolated from the malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi, namely WaF17.12, was reported to secrete a killer toxin with strong anti-plasmodial effect on different developmental stages of Plasmodium berghei; therefore, we propose its use in the symbiotic control of malaria. In this study, we focused on the identification/characterization of the protein toxin responsible for the observed antimicrobial activity of the yeast. For this purpose, the culture medium of the killer yeast strain WaF17.12 was processed by means of lateral flow filtration, anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, immunometric methods, and eventually analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Based on this concerted approach, we identified a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 140 kDa and limited electrophoretic mobility, corresponding to a high molecular weight β-glucosidase, as confirmed by activity tests in the presence of specific inhibitors. View Full-Text
Keywords: Wickerhamomyces anomalus; killer toxin; malaria; symbiotic control Wickerhamomyces anomalus; killer toxin; malaria; symbiotic control
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Cecarini, V.; Cuccioloni, M.; Bonfili, L.; Ricciutelli, M.; Valzano, M.; Cappelli, A.; Amantini, C.; Favia, G.; Eleuteri, A.M.; Angeletti, M.; Ricci, I. Identification of a Killer Toxin from Wickerhamomyces anomalus with β-Glucanase Activity. Toxins 2019, 11, 568.

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