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Toxins 2019, 11(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010054

Regional Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria Reveals the Presence of 164 Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Foods

1
Centre Pasteur du Cameroun (CPC), Yaoundé BP1274, Cameroon
2
LABERCA, Oniris, INRA, 44307 Nantes, France
3
Department IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), 3430 Tulln, Austria
4
National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Abuja 900288, Nigeria
5
Agence Béninoise de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments (ABSSA), Cotonou BP 362, Benin
6
Agence Nationale de la Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments (ANSSA), Bamako BP 2362, Mali
7
Laboratoire Central de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments (LCSSA), Cotonou BP 6874, Benin
8
Laboratoire de Technologie Alimentaire (LTA), Bamako BP 258, Mali
9
World Health Organization (WHO), 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
10
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 00153 Rome, Italy
11
Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Abstract

In the framework of the first multi-centre Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study (SSA-TDS), 2328 commonly consumed foods were purchased, prepared as consumed and pooled into 194 composite samples of cereals, tubers, legumes, vegetables, nuts and seeds, dairy, oils, beverages and miscellaneous. Those core foods were tested for mycotoxins and other fungal, bacterial and plant secondary metabolites by liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The highest aflatoxin concentrations were quantified in peanuts, peanut oil and maize. The mean concentration of the sum of aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 (AFtot) in peanut samples (56.4 µg/kg) exceeded EU (4 µg/kg) and Codex (15 µg/kg) standards. The AFtot concentration (max: 246.0 µg/kg) was associated with seasonal and geographic patterns and comprised, on average, 80% AFB1, the most potent aflatoxin. Although ochratoxin A concentrations rarely exceeded existing Codex standards, it was detected in unregulated foods. One palm oil composite sample contained 98 different metabolites, including 35.4 µg/kg of ochratoxin A. In total, 164 different metabolites were detected, with unspecific metabolites like asperglaucide, cyclo(L-pro-L-val), cyclo (L-pro-L-tyr), flavoglaucin, emodin and tryptophol occurring in more than 50% of composite samples. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), sterigmatocystin (STC), ochratoxin A (OTA), citrinin (CIT) and many other secondary fungal metabolites are frequent co-contaminants in staple foods, such as maize and sorghum. Populations from North Cameroon and from Benin may, therefore, suffer chronic and simultaneous exposure to AFB1, FB1, STC, OTA and CIT, which are prevalent in their diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; aflatoxins; mycotoxins; total diet study; food contaminants; LC-MS/MS Sub-Saharan Africa; aflatoxins; mycotoxins; total diet study; food contaminants; LC-MS/MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ingenbleek, L.; Sulyok, M.; Adegboye, A.; Hossou, S.E.; Koné, A.Z.; Oyedele, A.D.; K. J. Kisito, C.S.; Koreissi Dembélé, Y.; Eyangoh, S.; Verger, P.; Leblanc, J.-C.; Le Bizec, B.; Krska, R. Regional Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria Reveals the Presence of 164 Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Foods. Toxins 2019, 11, 54.

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