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Toxins 2019, 11(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010040

Effects of Two Fractions of Swietenia macrophylla and Catechin on Muscle Damage Induced by Bothrops Venom and PLA2

1
Faculty of Administrative and Agricultural Sciences, Corporación Universitaria Lasallista, Caldas 055440, Colombia
2
Faculty of Agrarian Sciences, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín 050036, Colombia
3
Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellín 050034, Colombia
4
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP 13083-887, Brazil
5
Microbiology School, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín 050010, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery of Antibodies and Novel Antivenoms against Envenoming)
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Abstract

Plant natural products can attenuate the myonecrosis caused by Bothrops snake venom and their phospholipases A2 (PLA2). In this study, we evaluated the effects of two fractions (F4 and F6) from Swietenia macrophylla and purified catechin on the muscle damage caused by a myotoxic PLA2 from Colombian Bothrops asper venom (BaColPLA2) in mice and by Bothrops marmoratus venom from Brazil in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscle (PND) preparations in vitro. Male mice were injected with PLA2 (50 µg) in the absence or presence of F4, F6, and catechin, in the gastrocnemius muscle and then killed 3, 7, 14, and 28 h later for histopathological analysis of myonecrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and the presence of collagen. Fractions F4 and F6 (500 µg) and catechin (90 µg) significantly reduced the extent of necrosis at all-time intervals. These two fractions and catechin also attenuated the leukocyte infiltration on day 3, as did catechin on day 14. There was medium-to-moderate collagen deposition in all groups up to day 7, but greater deposition on days 14 and 28 in the presence of F6 and catechin. Bothrops marmoratus venom (100 µg/mL) caused slight (~25%) muscle facilitation after 10 min and weak neuromuscular blockade (~64% decrease in contractile activity after a 120-min incubation). Pre-incubation of venom with F4 or F6 abolished the facilitation, whereas catechin, which was itself facilitatory, did not. All three fractions attenuated the venom-induced decrease in muscle contractions. These findings indicate that fractions and catechin from S. macrophylla can reduce the muscle damage caused by Bothrops venom and PLA2. These fractions or their components could be useful for treating venom-induced local damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bothrops asper; Bothrops marmoratus; catechin; myonecrosis; plant extracts; toxins Bothrops asper; Bothrops marmoratus; catechin; myonecrosis; plant extracts; toxins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Arias, S.P.; de Jesús Rodríguez, B.; Lobo-Echeverri, T.; Ramos, R.S.; Hyslop, S.; Rangel, V.N. Effects of Two Fractions of Swietenia macrophylla and Catechin on Muscle Damage Induced by Bothrops Venom and PLA2. Toxins 2019, 11, 40.

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