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Toxins 2019, 11(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020090

Vipera berus berus Venom from Russia: Venomics, Bioactivities and Preclinical Assessment of Microgen Antivenom

1
LLC Innova Plus, Saint-Petersburg 198099, Russia
2
Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 11501-206, Costa Rica
3
Laboratorio de Venómica Evolutiva y Traslacional, CSIC, Jaime Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery of Antibodies and Novel Antivenoms against Envenoming)
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Abstract

The common European adder, Vipera berus berus, is a medically relevant species, which is widely distributed in Russia and thus, is responsible for most snakebite accidents in Russia. We have investigated the toxic and enzymatic activities and have determined the proteomic composition of its venom. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2, 25.3% of the venom proteome), serine proteinases (SVSP, 16.2%), metalloproteinases (SVMP, 17.2%), vasoactive peptides (bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), 9.5% and C-type natriuretic peptides (C-NAP, 7.8%), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP, 8%) and L-amino acid oxidase (LAO, 7.3%) represent the major toxin classes found in V. b. berus (Russia) venom. This study was also designed to assess the in vivo and in vitro preclinical efficacy of the Russian Microgen antivenom in neutralizing the main effects of V. b. berus venom. The results show that this antivenom is capable of neutralizing the lethal, hemorrhagic and PLA2 activities. Third-generation antivenomics was applied to quantify the toxin-recognition landscape and the maximal binding capacity of the antivenom for each component of the venom. The antivenomics analysis revealed that 6.24% of the anti-V. b. berus F(ab’)2 molecules fraction are toxin-binding antibodies, 60% of which represent clinically relevant antivenom molecules. View Full-Text
Keywords: snake venom; common European viper; Vipera berus berus; venomics; snake antivenom; antivenomics snake venom; common European viper; Vipera berus berus; venomics; snake antivenom; antivenomics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Al-Shekhadat, R.I.; Lopushanskaya, K.S.; Segura, Á.; Gutiérrez, J.M.; Calvete, J.J.; Pla, D. Vipera berus berus Venom from Russia: Venomics, Bioactivities and Preclinical Assessment of Microgen Antivenom. Toxins 2019, 11, 90.

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