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Toxins 2019, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010023

Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Alleviates AflatoxinB1-Induced Immunotoxicity and Oxidative Stress via Modulation of NF-κB and Nrf2 Signaling Pathways in Broilers

1
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Banha 13736, Egypt
3
Department of Biotechnology, Lasbela Univesity of Agriculture Water and Marine Science, Uthal, Balochistan 89250, Pakistan
4
Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
5
College of veterinary medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a widely spread mycotoxin contaminates food and feed, causing severe oxidative stress damages and immunotoxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPE), a natural antioxidant with wide range of pharmacological and medicinal properties. The goal of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of GSPE against AFB1-induced immunotoxicity and oxidative stress via NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling pathways in broiler chickens. For the experiment, 240 one-day old Cobb chicks were allocated into four dietary treatment groups of six replicates (10 birds per replicate): 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + AFB1 1mg/kg contaminated corn (AFB1); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg (GSPE); 4. Basal diet + AFB1 1 mg/kg + GSPE 250 mg/kg (AFB1 + GSPE). The results showed that GSPE significantly decreased serum inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-6 induced by AFB1. Similarly, GSPE + AFB1 treated group revealed a significant decrease in mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6) in the splenic tissue compared to the AFB1 treatment group. In addition, western blotting results manifested that GSPE treatment normalized the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (p65) and the degradation of IκBα protein induced by AFB1. Furthermore, GSPE enhanced the antioxidant defense system through activating the nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2) signaling pathway. The mRNA and protein expression level of Nrf2 and its down streaming associated genes were noted up-regulated by the addition of GSPE, and down-regulated in the AFB1 group. Taken together, GSPE alleviates AFB1-induced immunotoxicity and oxidative damage by inhibiting the NF-κB and activating the Nrf2 signaling pathways in broiler chickens. Conclusively, our results suggest that GSPE could be considered as a potential natural agent for the prevention of AFB1-induced immunotoxicity and oxidative damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aflatoxin B1; Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract; Immunotoxicity; NF-κB; oxidative stress; Nrf2; Broilers Aflatoxin B1; Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract; Immunotoxicity; NF-κB; oxidative stress; Nrf2; Broilers
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Rajput, S.A.; Sun, L.; Zhang, N.-Y.; Khalil, M.M.; Ling, Z.; Chong, L.; Wang, S.; Rajput, I.R.; Bloch, D.M.; Khan, F.A.; Shaukat, A.; Qi, D. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Alleviates AflatoxinB1-Induced Immunotoxicity and Oxidative Stress via Modulation of NF-κB and Nrf2 Signaling Pathways in Broilers. Toxins 2019, 11, 23.

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