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Open AccessArticle

The Antioxidant Gallic Acid Inhibits Aflatoxin Formation in Aspergillus flavus by Modulating Transcription Factors FarB and CreA

1
The Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
2
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2018, 10(7), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070270
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 23 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
Aflatoxin biosynthesis is correlated with oxidative stress and is proposed to function as a secondary defense mechanism to redundant intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We find that the antioxidant gallic acid inhibits aflatoxin formation and growth in Aspergillus flavus in a dose-dependent manner. Global expression analysis (RNA-Seq) of gallic acid-treated A. flavus showed that 0.8% (w/v) gallic acid revealed two possible routes of aflatoxin inhibition. Gallic acid significantly inhibited the expression of farB, encoding a transcription factor that participates in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, a fundamental contributor to aflatoxin production. Secondly, the carbon repression regulator encoding gene, creA, was significantly down regulated by gallic acid treatment. CreA is necessary for aflatoxin synthesis, and aflatoxin biosynthesis genes were significantly downregulated in ∆creA mutants. In addition, the results of antioxidant enzyme activities and the lipid oxidation levels coupled with RNA-Seq data of antioxidant genes indicated that gallic acid may reduce oxidative stress through the glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent systems in A. flavus. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus flavus; antioxidant gallic acid; aflatoxin; farB; creA Aspergillus flavus; antioxidant gallic acid; aflatoxin; farB; creA
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Zhao, X.; Zhi, Q.-Q.; Li, J.-Y.; Keller, N.P.; He, Z.-M. The Antioxidant Gallic Acid Inhibits Aflatoxin Formation in Aspergillus flavus by Modulating Transcription Factors FarB and CreA. Toxins 2018, 10, 270.

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