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Toxins 2018, 10(7), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070254

A Systematic Literature Review for Evidence of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Toxigenicity in Recreational Waters and Toxicity of Dietary Supplements: 2000–2017

1
School of Biological and Population Health Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
2
Oregon Health Authority, Public Health Division, Portland, OR 97232, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges)
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Abstract

Previous studies of recreational waters and blue-green algae supplements (BGAS) demonstrated co-occurrence of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) and cyanotoxins, presenting exposure risk. The authors conducted a systematic literature review using a GRADE PRISMA-p 27-item checklist to assess the evidence for toxigenicity of AFA in both fresh waters and BGAS. Studies have shown AFA can produce significant levels of cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin in fresh waters. Toxicity studies evaluating AFA-based BGAS found some products carried the mcyE gene and tested positive for microcystins at levels ≤ 1 μg microcystin (MC)-LR equivalents/g dry weight. Further analysis discovered BGAS samples had cyanotoxins levels exceeding tolerable daily intake values. There is evidence that Aphanizomenon spp. are toxin producers and AFA has toxigenic genes such as mcyE that could lead to the production of MC under the right environmental conditions. Regardless of this ability, AFA commonly co-occur with known MC producers, which may contaminate BGAS. Toxin production by cyanobacteria is a health concern for both recreational water users and BGAS consumers. Recommendations include: limit harvesting of AFA to months when toxicity is lowest, include AFA in cell counts during visible blooms, and properly identify cyanobacteria species using 16S rRNA methods when toxicity levels are higher than advisory levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; blue-green algae supplements; cyanotoxins; microcystin; cylindrospermopsin; saxitoxin Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; blue-green algae supplements; cyanotoxins; microcystin; cylindrospermopsin; saxitoxin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Lyon-Colbert, A.; Su, S.; Cude, C. A Systematic Literature Review for Evidence of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Toxigenicity in Recreational Waters and Toxicity of Dietary Supplements: 2000–2017. Toxins 2018, 10, 254.

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