Next Article in Journal
Listeriolysin O Causes ENaC Dysfunction in Human Airway Epithelial Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Tolerance and Excretion of the Mycotoxins Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, and Ochratoxin A by Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates
Previous Article in Journal
Multiple Mycotoxins in Rice: Occurrence and Health Risk Assessment in Children and Adults of Punjab, Pakistan
Previous Article in Special Issue
Responses of Oat Grains to Fusarium poae and F. langsethiae Infections and Mycotoxin Contaminations
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina

Laboratorio de Biología Funcional y Biotecnología (BIOLAB), UNCPBA-CICBA, INBIOTEC-CONICET, Av. República de Italia 780, Azul, 7300 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Área de Toxicología, Departamento de Fisiopatología, Centro de Investigación Veterinaria de Tandil (CIVETAN) CONICET-CICBA, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias-UNCPBA, Campus Universitario, Paraje Arroyo Seco s/n, Tandil, 7000 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Estación Experimental Agropecuaria INTA Bordenave, Ruta Provincial 76 Km 36,5, Bordenave, 8187 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Área de Microbiología, Facultad de Agronomía de Azul-UNCPBA, Av. República de Italia 780, Azul, 7300 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(2), 78;
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
PDF [1649 KB, uploaded 11 February 2018]


Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012–2014 growing seasons was to screen crops for the most commonly isolated Fusarium species and to quantify DON and NIV toxins in natural malting-barley samples from different producing areas of Argentina. We identified 1180 Fusarium isolates in the 119 samples analyzed, with 51.2% being F. graminearum, 26.2% F. poae and 22.6% other species. We found high concentrations of mycotoxins, at maximum values of 12 μg/g of DON and 7.71 μg/g of NIV. Of the samples, 23% exhibited DON at an average of 2.36 μg/g, with 44% exceeding the maximum limits (average of 5.24 μg/g); 29% contained NIV at an average of 2.36 μg/g; 7% contained both DON and NIV; and 55% were without DON or NIV. Finally, we report the mycotoxin contamination of the grain samples produced by F. graminearum and F. poae, those being the most frequent Fusarium species present. We identified the main Fusarium species affecting natural malting-barley grains in Argentina and documented the presence of many samples with elevated concentrations of DON and NIV. To our knowledge, the investigation reported here was the first to quantify the contamination by Fusarium and its toxins in natural samples of malting barley in Argentina. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; Fusarium poae; DON; NIV; barley Fusarium graminearum; Fusarium poae; DON; NIV; barley

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nogueira, M.S.; Decundo, J.; Martinez, M.; Dieguez, S.N.; Moreyra, F.; Moreno, M.V.; Stenglein, S.A. Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina. Toxins 2018, 10, 78.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top