Next Article in Journal
Association between Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins and Asymptomatic Cardiac Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Phylogenetic Comparative Methods can Provide Important Insights into the Evolution of Toxic Weaponry
 
 
Article

Improvement of the Culture Medium for the Dichlorvos-Ammonia (DV-AM) Method to Selectively Detect Aflatoxigenic Fungi in Soil

1
Department of Environmental and Food Sciences, Faculty of Environmental and Information Sciences, Fukui University of Technology, 3-6-1 Gakuen, Fukui-shi, Fukui 910-8505, Japan
2
Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2-1-12 Kannon-dai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(12), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120519
Received: 10 November 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
The dichlorvos-ammonia (DV-AM) method is a simple but sensitive visual method for detecting aflatoxigenic fungi. Here we sought to develop a selective medium that is appropriate for the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi among soil mycoflora. We examined the effects of different concentrations of carbon sources (sucrose and glucose) and detergents (deoxycholate (DOC), Triton X-100, and Tween 80) on microorganisms in soils, using agar medium supplemented with chloramphenicol. The results demonstrated that 5–10% sucrose concentrations and 0.1–0.15% DOC concentrations were appropriate for the selective detection of aflatoxigenic fungi in soil. We also identified the optimal constituents of the medium on which the normal rapid growth of Rhizopus sp. was completely inhibited. By using the new medium along with the DV-AM method, we succeeded in the isolation of aflatoxigenic fungi from non-agricultural fields in Fukui city, Japan. The fungi were identified as Aspergillus nomius based on their calmodulin gene sequences. These results indicate that the new medium will be useful in practice for the detection of aflatoxigenic fungi in soil samples including those from non-agricultural environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; Aspergillus nomius; Aspergillus parasiticus; culture medium; dichlorvos-ammonia (DV-AM) method; deoxycholate; detergent; Rhizopus sp. aflatoxins; Aspergillus nomius; Aspergillus parasiticus; culture medium; dichlorvos-ammonia (DV-AM) method; deoxycholate; detergent; Rhizopus sp.
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Yabe, K.; Ozaki, H.; Maruyama, T.; Hayashi, K.; Matto, Y.; Ishizaka, M.; Makita, T.; Noma, S.-y.; Fujiwara, K.; Kushiro, M. Improvement of the Culture Medium for the Dichlorvos-Ammonia (DV-AM) Method to Selectively Detect Aflatoxigenic Fungi in Soil. Toxins 2018, 10, 519. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120519

AMA Style

Yabe K, Ozaki H, Maruyama T, Hayashi K, Matto Y, Ishizaka M, Makita T, Noma S-y, Fujiwara K, Kushiro M. Improvement of the Culture Medium for the Dichlorvos-Ammonia (DV-AM) Method to Selectively Detect Aflatoxigenic Fungi in Soil. Toxins. 2018; 10(12):519. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120519

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yabe, Kimiko, Haruna Ozaki, Takuya Maruyama, Keisuke Hayashi, Yuki Matto, Marika Ishizaka, Takeru Makita, Syun-ya Noma, Kousuke Fujiwara, and Masayo Kushiro. 2018. "Improvement of the Culture Medium for the Dichlorvos-Ammonia (DV-AM) Method to Selectively Detect Aflatoxigenic Fungi in Soil" Toxins 10, no. 12: 519. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120519

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop