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Toxins 2018, 10(12), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120520

Association between Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins and Asymptomatic Cardiac Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Department of Nephrology, Doncaster and Bassetlaw Teaching Hospitals, Doncaster DN2 5LT, UK
2
Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9DA, UK
3
Institute of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National University of Taiwan, Taipei 100, Taiwan
4
Department of Nephrology, Ghent University Hospital, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
5
Department of Nephrology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds LS9 7TF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 1 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uremia and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Abstract

Although the relationship between protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) and cardiac structure and cardiac mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been studied in the past, the association between cardiac dysfunction and PBUTs has not yet been studied. We therefore evaluated the association between impaired peak cardiac performance and the serum free and total concentrations of potentially cardiotoxic PBUTs. In a cross-sectional study of 56 male CKD patients (stages 2–5 (pre-dialysis)) who were asymptomatic with no known cardiac diseases or diabetes we measured peak cardiac power (CPOmax), aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max), and echocardiographic parameters of cardiac morphology and evaluated their association with PBUTs. The serum total and free concentrations of indoxyl sulfate (IXS), p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), p-cresyl glucuronide, indole acetic acid, and hippuric acid showed significant negative correlation with CPOmax and VO2max. IXS and PCS were independently associated with CPOmax and VO2max even after controlling for eGFR. No correlation between left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and PBUTs was seen. The present study for the first time has demonstrated the association between subclinical cardiac dysfunction in CKD and serum levels of a panel of PBUTs. Further studies are required to evaluate the mechanism of cardiotoxicity of the individual uremic toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: uremic toxins; cardiac function; cardiac power; aerobic exercise capacity uremic toxins; cardiac function; cardiac power; aerobic exercise capacity
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Chinnappa, S.; Tu, Y.-K.; Yeh, Y.C.; Glorieux, G.; Vanholder, R.; Mooney, A. Association between Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins and Asymptomatic Cardiac Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Toxins 2018, 10, 520.

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