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Toxins 2018, 10(12), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120512

Nitrite Enhances MC-LR-Induced Changes on Splenic Oxidation Resistance and Innate Immunity in Male Zebrafish

1
College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for Pond Aquaculture, Wuhan 430070, China
3
National Demonstration Center for Experimental Aquaculture Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 24 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Freshwater HABs and Health in a Changing World)
PDF [1617 KB, uploaded 3 December 2018]   |   Review Reports

Abstract

Hazardous contaminants, such as nitrite and microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR), are released into water bodies during cyanobacterial blooms and may adversely influence the normal physiological function of hydrobiontes. The combined effects of nitrite and MC-LR on the antioxidant defense and innate immunity were evaluated through an orthogonal experimental design (nitrite: 0, 29, 290 μM; MC-LR: 0, 3, 30 nM). Remarkable increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels have suggested that nitrite and/or MC-LR exposures induce oxidative stress in fish spleen, which were indirectly confirmed by significant downregulations of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) contents, as well as transcriptional levels of antioxidant enzyme genes cat1, sod1 and gpx1a. Simultaneously, nitrite and MC-LR significantly decreased serum complement C3 levels as well as the transcriptional levels of splenic c3b, lyz, il1β, ifnγ and tnfα, and indicated that they could jointly impact the innate immunity of fish. The severity and extent of splenic lesions were aggravated by increased concentration of nitrite or MC-LR and became more serious in combined groups. The damages of mitochondria and pseudopodia in splenic macrophages suggest that oxidative stress exerted by nitrite and MC-LR aimed at the membrane structure of immune cells and ultimately disrupted immune function. Our results clearly demonstrate that nitrite and MC-LR exert synergistic suppressive effects on fish innate immunity via interfering antioxidant responses, and their joint toxicity should not be underestimated in eutrophic lakes.
Keywords: Microcystin-LR; Nitrite; oxidative stress; immune function; joint toxicity Microcystin-LR; Nitrite; oxidative stress; immune function; joint toxicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lin, W.; Guo, H.; Wang, L.; Zhang, D.; Wu, X.; Li, L.; Li, D.; Tang, R. Nitrite Enhances MC-LR-Induced Changes on Splenic Oxidation Resistance and Innate Immunity in Male Zebrafish. Toxins 2018, 10, 512.

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