Impact of Microcystin-LR on Liver Function Varies by Dose and Sex in Mice
AbstractMicrocystin (MC) exposure is an increasing concern because more geographical locations are covered with cyanobacterial blooms as eutrophication and bloom-favoring environmental factors become more prevalent worldwide. Acute MC exposure has been linked to gastrointestinal distress, liver toxicity, and death in extreme circumstances. The goal of this study was to provide an accurate and comprehensive description of MC-LRs impacts on liver pathology, clinical chemistry, and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in CD-1 male and female mice. Mice were exposed to 0, 3000, and 5000/4000 µg/kg/day MC-LR, daily for 7 days, and were necropsied on Day 8. Blood samples for clinical chemistry analysis were processed to serum, while liver sections were fixed for histopathology or evaluated for GJIC using fluorescent cut-load dye. Results show a dose-dependent relationship with MC-LR exposure and hepatocellular hypertrophy, degradation, and necrosis. Clinical chemistry parameters alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, and cholesterol increased significantly in MC-LR exposed mice. Clinical chemistry parameter analysis showed significantly increased susceptibility to MC-LR in females compared to males. Changes in GJIC were not noted, but localization of hepatotoxicity near the central veins and midlobular areas was seen. Future toxicity studies involving MCs should consider response differences across sexes, differing MC congeners, and combinatorial exposures involving other cyanotoxins. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Mrdjen, I.; Morse, M.A.; Ruch, R.J.; Knobloch, T.J.; Choudhary, S.; Weghorst, C.M.; Lee, J. Impact of Microcystin-LR on Liver Function Varies by Dose and Sex in Mice. Toxins 2018, 10, 435.
Mrdjen I, Morse MA, Ruch RJ, Knobloch TJ, Choudhary S, Weghorst CM, Lee J. Impact of Microcystin-LR on Liver Function Varies by Dose and Sex in Mice. Toxins. 2018; 10(11):435.Chicago/Turabian Style
Mrdjen, Igor; Morse, Mark A.; Ruch, Randall J.; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Choudhary, Shambhunath; Weghorst, Christopher M.; Lee, Jiyoung. 2018. "Impact of Microcystin-LR on Liver Function Varies by Dose and Sex in Mice." Toxins 10, no. 11: 435.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.