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Toxins 2018, 10(12), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120493

Fungal Endophytes Control Fusarium graminearum and Reduce Trichothecenes and Zearalenone in Maize

1
Centre of Excellence in Mycotoxicology and Public Health, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Laboratory of Applied Mycology and Phenomics, Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 24 November 2018
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Abstract

Fusarium graminearum can cause Giberella Ear Rot (GER) and seedling blight in maize, resulting in major yield losses. Besides GER, the infected grains are consequently contaminated with multiple mycotoxins of F. graminearum. Zearalenone and trichothecenes, such as deoxynivalenol and its acetylated forms, are among the major mycotoxins associated with F. graminearum infection in maize. In the current work, we explored the effect of the endophytic fungal genera of Epicoccum and Sordaria, to control F. graminearum infection in comparative trials with Piriformospora spp., an elusive endophytic genus. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of these endophytes on zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol levels using in vitro and in planta assays. As plants are endowed with several detoxification mechanisms comprising e.g., glucosylation of trichothecenes, the effect of the isolated fungal endophytes on the deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside level was also assessed. In general, results showed a considerable variability in the antifungal activity, both among species and among isolates within one species. Additionally, the effect on mycotoxin levels was variable, and not necessarily related to the antifungal activity except for zearalenone levels which were consistently reduced by the endophytes. These results highlight the great potential of certain endophytic fungal strains as new biocontrol agents in agricultural science. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; biocontrol; mycotoxins; endophytes; biogenic volatiles; deoxynivalenol; zearalenone; biological control; maize Fusarium graminearum; biocontrol; mycotoxins; endophytes; biogenic volatiles; deoxynivalenol; zearalenone; biological control; maize
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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F. Abdallah, M.; De Boevre, M.; Landschoot, S.; De Saeger, S.; Haesaert, G.; Audenaert, K. Fungal Endophytes Control Fusarium graminearum and Reduce Trichothecenes and Zearalenone in Maize. Toxins 2018, 10, 493.

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