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Toxins 2018, 10(12), 515;

A Systematic Overview of Type II and III Toxin-Antitoxin Systems with a Focus on Druggability

The Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems)
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Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are known to play various roles in physiological processes, such as gene regulation, growth arrest and survival, in bacteria exposed to environmental stress. Type II TA systems comprise natural complexes consisting of protein toxins and antitoxins. Each toxin and antitoxin participates in distinct regulatory mechanisms depending on the type of TA system. Recently, peptides designed by mimicking the interfaces between TA complexes showed its potential to activate the activity of toxin by competing its binding counterparts. Type II TA systems occur more often in pathogenic bacteria than in their nonpathogenic kin. Therefore, they can be possible drug targets, because of their high abundance in some pathogenic bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, recent bioinformatic analyses have shown that type III TA systems are highly abundant in the intestinal microbiota, and recent clinical studies have shown that the intestinal microbiota is linked to inflammatory diseases, obesity and even several types of cancer. We therefore focused on exploring the putative relationship between intestinal microbiota-related human diseases and type III TA systems. In this paper, we review and discuss the development of possible druggable materials based on the mechanism of type II and type III TA system. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxin-antitoxin system; type II; type III; drug target; antimicrobial peptides; microbiota toxin-antitoxin system; type II; type III; drug target; antimicrobial peptides; microbiota

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Kang, S.-M.; Kim, D.-H.; Jin, C.; Lee, B.-J. A Systematic Overview of Type II and III Toxin-Antitoxin Systems with a Focus on Druggability. Toxins 2018, 10, 515.

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