Next Article in Journal
Protective Effect of N-Acetylcysteine against Oxidative Stress Induced by Zearalenone via Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway in SIEC02 Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
In Vitro Mutagenic and Genotoxic Assessment of a Mixture of the Cyanotoxins Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin
Previous Article in Journal
Interaction of Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin and Lipolysis-Stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Histopathological Evaluation of the Exposure by Cyanobacteria Cultive Containing [d-Leu1]Microcystin-LR on Lithobates catesbeianus Tadpoles
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

New Method for Simultaneous Determination of Microcystins and Cylindrospermopsin in Vegetable Matrices by SPE-UPLC-MS/MS

1
Area of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, C/Profesor García González 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
2
CIIMAR/CIMAR—Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de leixões, Av General Norton de Matos, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
3
Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(10), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100406
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges)
Cyanotoxins are a large group of noxious metabolites with different chemical structure and mechanisms of action, with a worldwide distribution, producing effects in animals, humans, and crop plants. When cyanotoxin-contaminated waters are used for the irrigation of edible vegetables, humans can be in contact with these toxins through the food chain. In this work, a method for the simultaneous detection of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), Microcystin-RR (MC-RR), Microcystin-YR (MC-YR), and Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in lettuce has been optimized and validated, using a dual solid phase extraction (SPE) system for toxin extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for analysis. Results showed linear ranges (5–50 ng g−1 f.w.), low values for limit of detection (LOD) (0.06–0.42 ng g−1 f.w.), and limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.16–0.91 ng g−1 f.w.), acceptable recoveries (41–93%), and %RSDIP values for the four toxins. The method proved to be robust for the three variables tested. Finally, it was successfully applied to detect these cyanotoxins in edible vegetables exposed to cyanobacterial extracts under laboratory conditions, and it could be useful for monitoring these toxins in edible vegetables for better exposure estimation in terms of risk assessment. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystins; cylindrospermopsin; method validation; UPLC-MS/MS; lettuce microcystins; cylindrospermopsin; method validation; UPLC-MS/MS; lettuce
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Díez-Quijada, L.; Guzmán-Guillén, R.; Prieto Ortega, A.I.; Llana-Ruíz-Cabello, M.; Campos, A.; Vasconcelos, V.; Jos, Á.; Cameán, A.M. New Method for Simultaneous Determination of Microcystins and Cylindrospermopsin in Vegetable Matrices by SPE-UPLC-MS/MS. Toxins 2018, 10, 406.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop