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Toxins 2015, 7(6), 2198-2220;

Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins Occurrence and Removal from Five High-Risk Conventional Treatment Drinking Water Plants

Chemistry Department, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, USA
Office of Groundwater and Drinking Water, Technical Support Center, USEPA, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Lake Superior State University, Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783, USA
Lumigen Instrument Center, Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Elizabeth D. Hilborn
Received: 23 January 2015 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 25 May 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
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An environmental protection agency EPA expert workshop prioritized three cyanotoxins, microcystins, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin (MAC), as being important in freshwaters of the United States. This study evaluated the prevalence of potentially toxin producing cyanobacteria cell numbers relative to the presence and quantity of the MAC toxins in the context of this framework. Total and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria cell counts were conducted on weekly raw and finished water samples from utilities located in five US states. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) was used to screen the raw and finished water samples for microcystins. High-pressure liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA) verified microcystin concentrations and quantified anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin concentrations. Four of the five utilities experienced cyanobacterial blooms in their raw water. Raw water samples from three utilities showed detectable levels of microcystins and a fourth utility had detectable levels of both microcystin and cylindrospermopsin. No utilities had detectable concentrations of anatoxin-a. These conventional plants effectively removed the cyanobacterial cells and all finished water samples showed MAC levels below the detection limit by ELISA and HPLC/PDA. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; microcystin; anatoxin-a; cylindrospermopsin; conventional drinking water treatment cyanobacteria; microcystin; anatoxin-a; cylindrospermopsin; conventional drinking water treatment

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Szlag, D.C.; Sinclair, J.L.; Southwell, B.; Westrick, J.A. Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins Occurrence and Removal from Five High-Risk Conventional Treatment Drinking Water Plants. Toxins 2015, 7, 2198-2220.

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