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Open AccessArticle

Coffee Consumption and Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Liver Cancer: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

1
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “G.F. Ingrassia”, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-008 Krakow, Poland
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Division of Gastroenterology, Ospedale di Acireale, Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale di Catania, 95024 Catania, Italy
4
Department of Food and Drugs, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy
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NNEdPro Global Centre for Nutrition and Health (Affiliated with: Cambridge University Health Partners and the British Dietetic Association), St John’s Innovation Centre, Cambridge CB4 0WS, UK
6
Medical Research Council (MRC) Human Nutrition Research Unit, Cambridge CB1 9NL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090950
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
Background: A meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort and case-control studies regarding the association between coffee intake and biliary tract cancer (BTC) and liver cancer risk. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases from the earliest available online indexing year to March 2017. The dose–response relationship was assessed by a restricted cubic spline model and multivariate random-effect meta-regression. A stratified and subgroup analysis by smoking status and hepatitis was performed to identify potential confounding factors. Results: We identified five studies on BTC risk and 13 on liver cancer risk eligible for meta-analysis. A linear dose–response meta-analysis did not show a significant association between coffee consumption and BTC risk. However, there was evidence of inverse correlation between coffee consumption and liver cancer risk. The association was consistent throughout the various potential confounding factors explored including smoking status, hepatitis, etc. Increasing coffee consumption by one cup per day was associated with a 15% reduction in liver cancer risk (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.88). Conclusions: The findings suggest that increased coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of liver cancer, but not BTC. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; caffeine; gallbladder cancer; biliary tract cancer; liver cancer; hepatitis; meta-analysis; dose–response coffee; caffeine; gallbladder cancer; biliary tract cancer; liver cancer; hepatitis; meta-analysis; dose–response
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Godos, J.; Micek, A.; Marranzano, M.; Salomone, F.; Rio, D.D.; Ray, S. Coffee Consumption and Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Liver Cancer: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Nutrients 2017, 9, 950.

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