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Open AccessArticle

Salt Use Behaviours of Ghanaians and South Africans: A Comparative Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices

1
School of Medicine, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
2
Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
3
Hypertension in Africa Research Team (HART), North-West University, Potchefstroom 2531, South Africa
4
School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
5
Department of Community Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
6
World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
7
Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia
8
Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090939
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
Salt consumption is high in Africa and the continent also shares the greatest burden of hypertension. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviours (KAB) amongst adults from two African countries—Ghana and South Africa—which have distributed different public health messages related to salt. KAB was assessed in the multinational longitudinal World Health Organisation (WHO) study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-SAGE) Wave 2 (2014–2015). Respondents were randomly selected across both countries—Ghana (n = 6746; mean age 58 years old; SD 17; 41% men; 31% hypertensive) and South Africa (n = 3776, mean age 54 years old; SD 17; 32% men; 45% hypertensive). South Africans were more likely than Ghanaians to add salt to food at the table (OR 4.80, CI 4.071–5.611, p < 0.001) but less likely to add salt to food during cooking (OR 0.16, CI 0.130–0.197, p < 0.001). South Africans were also less likely to take action to control their salt intake (OR 0.436, CI 0.379–0.488, p < 0.001). Considering the various salt reduction initiatives of South Africa that have been largely absent in Ghana, this study supports additional efforts to raise consumer awareness on discretionary salt use and behaviour change in both countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: discretionary salt; dietary salt; sodium; health behaviour; blood pressure discretionary salt; dietary salt; sodium; health behaviour; blood pressure
MDPI and ACS Style

Menyanu, E.; Charlton, K.E.; Ware, L.J.; Russell, J.; Biritwum, R.; Kowal, P. Salt Use Behaviours of Ghanaians and South Africans: A Comparative Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices. Nutrients 2017, 9, 939.

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