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Open AccessArticle

Type 1 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: When Should We Be Concerned? A Nationwide Study in Brazil

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Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetes Unit, State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Boulevard 28 de Setembro, 77-3º andar-Vila Isabel, Rio de Janeiro-RJ CEP 20551-030, Brazil
2
Department of Ophthalmology, State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Boulevard 28 de Setembro, 77-4º andar-Vila Isabel, Rio de Janeiro-RJ CEP 20551-030, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group (BrazDiab1SG)—Membership is provided in the Acknowledgments
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080878
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
Obesity is increasing worldwide, affecting even patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A higher prevalence of associated comorbidities is expected, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This paper reports a cross-sectional multicenter study on a population with T1D (n = 1662), which aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), a known risk factor for NAFLD, and to investigate predisposing factors associated with MS, as well as factors associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as it correlates to liver fat content. Patients were from 14 public clinics of 10 cities from all geographical regions of Brazil. A high prevalence of MS was found, especially among adults (32.3%), and this was related to age, female gender, acid uric levels, and the presence of acanthosis nigricans. ALT above the normal range was associated with triglyceride levels (especially above 129.5 mg/dL), serum uric acid, age, male gender, HbA1c, and non-Caucasian ethnicity. Patients with T1D, metabolic syndrome, and the aforementioned factors may be at a higher risk of NAFLD and should be referred to ultrasound for NAFLD evaluation. Further studies are necessary to establish the prevalence of NAFLD in individuals with T1D and to determine the disease’s progression in these patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 1 diabetes; metabolic syndrome; aminotransferase; liver; NAFLD; obesity type 1 diabetes; metabolic syndrome; aminotransferase; liver; NAFLD; obesity
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Barros, B.S.V.; Conte Santos, D.; Haas Pizarro, M.; Melo, L.G.N.; Brito Gomes, M. Type 1 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: When Should We Be Concerned? A Nationwide Study in Brazil. Nutrients 2017, 9, 878.

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