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Vegetable and Fruit Intake and Fracture-Related Hospitalisations: A Prospective Study of Older Women

School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital Unit, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6000, Australia
School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
Centre for Kidney Research, Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW 2145, Australia
School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
School of Medicine and Pharmacology, QEII Medical Centre Unit, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, and Department of Renal Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
School of Biomedical Sciences & Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6102, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 511;
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
PDF [254 KB, uploaded 18 May 2017]


The importance of vegetable and fruit intakes for the prevention of fracture in older women is not well understood. Few studies have explored vegetable and fruit intakes separately, or the associations of specific types of vegetables and fruits with fracture hospitalisations. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of vegetable and fruit intakes, separately, and specific types of vegetables and fruits with fracture-related hospitalisations in a prospective cohort of women aged ≥70 years. Vegetable and fruit intakes were assessed at baseline (1998) in 1468 women using a food frequency questionnaire. The incidence of fracture-related hospitalisations over 14.5 years of follow-up was determined using the Hospital Morbidity Data Collection, linked via the Western Australian Data Linkage System. Fractures were identified in 415 (28.3%) women, of which 158 (10.8%) were hip fractures. Higher intakes of vegetables, but not fruits, were associated with lower fracture incidence. In multivariable-adjusted models for vegetable types, cruciferous and allium vegetables were inversely associated with all fractures, with a hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) of 0.72 (0.54, 0.95) and 0.66 (0.49, 0.88), respectively, for the highest vs. lowest quartiles. Increasing vegetable intake, with an emphasis on cruciferous and allium vegetables, may prevent fractures in older postmenopausal women. View Full-Text
Keywords: vegetables; fruit; cruciferous; allium; fracture; bone; postmenopausal women vegetables; fruit; cruciferous; allium; fracture; bone; postmenopausal women
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Blekkenhorst, L.C.; Hodgson, J.M.; Lewis, J.R.; Devine, A.; Woodman, R.J.; Lim, W.H.; Wong, G.; Zhu, K.; Bondonno, C.P.; Ward, N.C.; Prince, R.L. Vegetable and Fruit Intake and Fracture-Related Hospitalisations: A Prospective Study of Older Women. Nutrients 2017, 9, 511.

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