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Dietary Metabolites and Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Division of Nephrology and Endocrinology, the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan
2
Division of CKD Pathophysiology, the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040358
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Dietary contents and their metabolites are closely related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Advanced glycated end products (AGEs) are a type of uremic toxin produced by glycation. AGE accumulation is not only the result of elevated glucose levels or reduced renal clearance capacity, but it also promotes CKD progression. Indoxyl sulfate, another uremic toxin derived from amino acid metabolism, accumulates as CKD progresses and induces tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glomerular sclerosis. Specific types of amino acids (d-serine) or fatty acids (palmitate) are reported to be closely associated with CKD progression. Promising therapeutic targets associated with nutrition include uremic toxin absorbents and inhibitors of AGEs or the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Probiotics and prebiotics maintain gut flora balance and also prevent CKD progression by enhancing gut barriers and reducing uremic toxin formation. Nrf2 signaling not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also reduces elevated AGE levels. Bardoxolone methyl, an Nrf2 activator and NF-κB suppressor, has been tested as a therapeutic agent, but the phase 3 clinical trial was terminated owing to the high rate of cardiovascular events. However, a phase 2 trial has been initiated in Japan, and the preliminary analysis reveals promising results without an increase in cardiovascular events. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; nutrients; uremic toxins; advanced glycated end products; indoxyl sulfate; d-amino acids; palmitate chronic kidney disease; nutrients; uremic toxins; advanced glycated end products; indoxyl sulfate; d-amino acids; palmitate
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Hasegawa, S.; Jao, T.-M.; Inagi, R. Dietary Metabolites and Chronic Kidney Disease. Nutrients 2017, 9, 358.

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