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The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno-Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132-84084 Fisciano-Salerno, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Ithaca, NY 14853-6401, USA
3
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Naples Federico II, via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pineta Grande Hospital Via Domitiana km 30, 81030 Castel Volturno (CE), Italy.
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121343
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
Fusarium mycotoxins are fungal metabolites whose ability to affect cereal grains as multi-contaminants is progressively increasing. The trichothecene mycotoxins nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are often found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide. They are able to affect animal and human health, including at the intestinal level. In this study, NIV, both alone and in combination with DON, induced inflammation and increased the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus Interferon-γ (IFN) in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6). The inflammatory response induced by NIV and DON involves tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, nitrotyrosine formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and inflammasome activation. The pro-inflammatory effect was strongly induced by NIV and by the mycotoxin mixture, when compared to DON alone. Mechanistic studies indicate a pivotal role for ROS in the observed pro-inflammatory effects induced by mycotoxins. In this study, the interactions between NIV and DON point out the importance of their food co-contamination, further highlighting the risk assessment process that is of growing concern. View Full-Text
Keywords: nivalenol; deoxynivalenol; intestinal epithelial cells; inflammation; oxidative stress; mycotoxin combination nivalenol; deoxynivalenol; intestinal epithelial cells; inflammation; oxidative stress; mycotoxin combination
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Adesso, S.; Autore, G.; Quaroni, A.; Popolo, A.; Severino, L.; Marzocco, S. The Food Contaminants Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Induce Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Release. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1343.

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