Next Article in Journal
Urinary Metabolomic Approach Provides New Insights into Distinct Metabolic Profiles of Glutamine and N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation in Rats
Previous Article in Journal
Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 477;

The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Nutrients and Biologically-Active Components in Donor Human Milk: A Review

Complex Structure Neonatology Unit, Department of Public Health and Pediatric, University of Turin, Via Ventimiglia 3, Torino 10126, Italy
Italian Association of Human Milk Banks, Via Libero Temolo 4, Milan 20126, Italy
Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Concil, largo Braccini 2, Grugliasco 10095, Italy
Food & Nutrition Research Center, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, via Ardeatina 546, Roma 00178, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2016 / Revised: 25 July 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 2 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
Full-Text   |   PDF [259 KB, uploaded 2 August 2016]


When a mother’s milk is unavailable, the best alternative is donor milk (DM). Milk delivered to Human Milk Banks should be pasteurized in order to inactivate the microbial agents that may be present. Currently, pasteurization, performed at 62.5 °C for 30 min (Holder Pasteurization, HoP), is recommended for this purpose in international guidelines. Several studies have been performed to investigate the effects of HoP on the properties of DM. The present paper has the aim of reviewing the published papers on this topic, and to provide a comparison of the reported variations of biologically-active DM components before and after HoP. This review was performed by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and Cochrane Library databases. Studies that clearly identified the HoP parameters and compared the same DM samples, before and after pasteurization, were focused on. A total of 44 articles satisfied the above criteria, and were therefore selected. The findings from the literature report variable results. A possible explanation for this may be the heterogeneity of the test protocols that were applied. Moreover, the present review spans more than five decades, and modern pasteurizers may be able to modify the degradation kinetics for heat-sensitive substances, compared to older ones. Overall, the data indicate that HoP affects several milk components, although it is difficult to quantify the degradation degree. However, clinical practices demonstrate that many beneficial properties of DM still persist after HoP. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; donor milk; holder pasteurization; Human Milk Banks human milk; donor milk; holder pasteurization; Human Milk Banks
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Peila, C.; Moro, G.E.; Bertino, E.; Cavallarin, L.; Giribaldi, M.; Giuliani, F.; Cresi, F.; Coscia, A. The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Nutrients and Biologically-Active Components in Donor Human Milk: A Review. Nutrients 2016, 8, 477.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top