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Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 108;

Metabolic Effects of a 24-Week Energy-Restricted Intervention Combined with Low or High Dairy Intake in Overweight Women: An NMR-Based Metabolomics Investigation

Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Kirstinebjergvej 10, Aarslev DK-5792, Denmark
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, China
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C DK-1958, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 23 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products and Human Health)
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We investigated the effect of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention with low or high dairy intake (LD or HD) on the metabolic profiles of urine, blood and feces in overweight/obese women by NMR spectroscopy combined with ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). A significant effect of dairy intake was found on the urine metabolome. HD intake increased urinary citrate, creatinine and urea excretion, and decreased urinary excretion of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and hippurate relative to the LD intake, suggesting that HD intake was associated with alterations in protein catabolism, energy metabolism and gut microbial activity. In addition, a significant time effect on the blood metabolome was attributed to a decrease in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels due to the energy restriction. For the fecal metabolome, a trend for a diet effect was found and a series of metabolites, such as acetate, butyrate, propionate, malonate, cholesterol and glycerol tended to be affected. Overall, even though these effects were not accompanied by a higher weight loss, the present metabolomics data reveal that a high dairy intake is associated with endogenous metabolic effects and effects on gut microbial activity that potentially impact body weight regulation and health. Moreover, ASCA has a great potential for exploring the effect of intervention factors and identifying altered metabolites in a multi-factorial metabolomic study. View Full-Text
Keywords: ASCA; body weight; dairy; metabolome; feces; short-chain fatty acid ASCA; body weight; dairy; metabolome; feces; short-chain fatty acid

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Zheng, H.; Lorenzen, J.K.; Astrup, A.; Larsen, L.H.; Yde, C.C.; Clausen, M.R.; Bertram, H.C. Metabolic Effects of a 24-Week Energy-Restricted Intervention Combined with Low or High Dairy Intake in Overweight Women: An NMR-Based Metabolomics Investigation. Nutrients 2016, 8, 108.

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