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Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 116;

Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
School of Sport, Carnegie Faculty, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds LS6 3QT, UK
Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Institute of Cellular Medicine, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products and Human Health)
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We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI): 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2) completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ) was consumed with (CHO + WP) or without (CHO) 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ), or breakfast was omitted (NB). At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min): 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L), compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L) and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05), with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min) glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247). There were no post-lunch (0–180 min) effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492), insulinemia (p = 0.338) or subjective appetite (p > 0.05). Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal. View Full-Text
Keywords: whey protein; appetite; breakfast; glycemia; insulinemia whey protein; appetite; breakfast; glycemia; insulinemia

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Allerton, D.M.; Campbell, M.D.; Gonzalez, J.T.; Rumbold, P.L.S.; West, D.J.; Stevenson, E.J. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males. Nutrients 2016, 8, 116.

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