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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

1
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, Wageningen 6700 AA, The Netherlands
2
Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam 3000 CA, The Netherlands
3
Section of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 22700, Amsterdam 1100 DD, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7781-7797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7095364
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 21 August 2015 / Accepted: 27 August 2015 / Published: 14 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older People)
Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy) and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs), and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile): 4.18 (3.29–5.38) versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40) μg/day), serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L). Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin B-12 intake; serum vitamin B-12; dairy; milk; yoghurt; cheese; meat; fish and shellfish; eggs vitamin B-12 intake; serum vitamin B-12; dairy; milk; yoghurt; cheese; meat; fish and shellfish; eggs
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Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Van Wijngaarden, J.P.; Zwaluw, N.L.; Velde, N.V.; De Groot, L.C.P.G.M. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7781-7797.

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