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Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D Regulation of T cells

1
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
2
Center for Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 3011-3021; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7043011
Received: 20 March 2015 / Revised: 14 April 2015 / Accepted: 16 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Regulation by Vitamin D)
Vitamin D is a direct and indirect regulator of T cells. The mechanisms by which vitamin D directly regulates T cells are reviewed and new primary data on the effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on human invariant natural killer (iNK)T cells is presented. The in vivo effects of vitamin D on murine T cells include inhibition of T cell proliferation, inhibition of IFN-γ, IL-17 and induction of IL-4. Experiments in mice demonstrate that the effectiveness of 1,25(OH)2D requires NKT cells, IL-10, the IL-10R and IL-4. Comparisons of mouse and human T cells show that 1,25(OH)2D inhibits IL-17 and IFN-γ, and induces T regulatory cells and IL-4. IL-4 was induced by 1,25(OH)2D in mouse and human iNKT cells. Activation for 72h was required for optimal expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in human and mouse T and iNKT cells. In addition, T cells are potential autocrine sources of 1,25(OH)2D but again only 48–72h after activation. Together the data support the late effects of vitamin D on diseases like inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis where reducing IL-17 and IFN-γ, while inducing IL-4 and IL-10, would be beneficial. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; T cells; vitamin D receptor vitamin D; T cells; vitamin D receptor
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Cantorna, M.T.; Snyder, L.; Lin, Y.-D.; Yang, L. Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D Regulation of T cells. Nutrients 2015, 7, 3011-3021.

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