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Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D Regulation of T cells

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Center for Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 3011-3021;
Received: 20 March 2015 / Revised: 14 April 2015 / Accepted: 16 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Regulation by Vitamin D)
Vitamin D is a direct and indirect regulator of T cells. The mechanisms by which vitamin D directly regulates T cells are reviewed and new primary data on the effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on human invariant natural killer (iNK)T cells is presented. The in vivo effects of vitamin D on murine T cells include inhibition of T cell proliferation, inhibition of IFN-γ, IL-17 and induction of IL-4. Experiments in mice demonstrate that the effectiveness of 1,25(OH)2D requires NKT cells, IL-10, the IL-10R and IL-4. Comparisons of mouse and human T cells show that 1,25(OH)2D inhibits IL-17 and IFN-γ, and induces T regulatory cells and IL-4. IL-4 was induced by 1,25(OH)2D in mouse and human iNKT cells. Activation for 72h was required for optimal expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in human and mouse T and iNKT cells. In addition, T cells are potential autocrine sources of 1,25(OH)2D but again only 48–72h after activation. Together the data support the late effects of vitamin D on diseases like inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis where reducing IL-17 and IFN-γ, while inducing IL-4 and IL-10, would be beneficial. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; T cells; vitamin D receptor vitamin D; T cells; vitamin D receptor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cantorna, M.T.; Snyder, L.; Lin, Y.-D.; Yang, L. Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D Regulation of T cells. Nutrients 2015, 7, 3011-3021.

AMA Style

Cantorna MT, Snyder L, Lin Y-D, Yang L. Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D Regulation of T cells. Nutrients. 2015; 7(4):3011-3021.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cantorna, Margherita T., Lindsay Snyder, Yang-Ding Lin, and Linlin Yang. 2015. "Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D Regulation of T cells" Nutrients 7, no. 4: 3011-3021.

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