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Meta-Analysis of the Association between Vitamin D and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000, China
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Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2485-2498; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7042485
Received: 15 January 2015 / Revised: 10 February 2015 / Accepted: 16 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Regulation by Vitamin D)
Although emerging evidence suggests that low levels of vitamin D may contribute to the development of autoimmune disease, the relationship between vitamin D reduction and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), which includes Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), is still controversial. The aim was to evaluate the association between vitamin D levels and AITD through systematic literature review. We identified all studies that assessed the association between vitamin D and AITD from PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. We included studies that compared vitamin D levels between AITD cases and controls as well as those that measured the odds of vitamin D deficiency by AITD status. We combined the standardized mean differences (SMD) or the odds ratios (OR) in a random effects model. Twenty case-control studies provided data for a quantitative meta-analysis. Compared to controls, AITD patients had lower levels of 25(OH)D (SMD: −0.99, 95% CI: −1.31, −0.66) and were more likely to be deficient in 25(OH)D (OR 2.99, 95% CI: 1.88, 4.74). Furthermore, subgroup analyses result showed that GD and HT patients also had lower 25(OH)D levels and were more likely to have a 25(OH)D deficiency, suggesting that low levels of serum 25(OH)D was related to AITD. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; autoimmune thyroid disease; Graves’ disease; Hashimoto thyroiditis; meta-analysis vitamin D; autoimmune thyroid disease; Graves’ disease; Hashimoto thyroiditis; meta-analysis
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Wang, J.; Lv, S.; Chen, G.; Gao, C.; He, J.; Zhong, H.; Xu, Y. Meta-Analysis of the Association between Vitamin D and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2485-2498.

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