With the increasing recognition of the importance of the non-skeletal effects of vitamin D (VitD), more and more attention has been drawn to VitD status in early life. However, the VitD status of newborns and factors that influence VitD levels in Shanghai, China, remain unclear. A total of 1030 pregnant women were selected from two hospitals in Shanghai, one of the largest cities in China located at 31 degrees north latitude. Umbilical cord serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured by LC-MS-MS, and questionnaires were used to collect information. The median cord serum 25(OH)D concentration was 22.4 ng/mL; the concentration lower than 20 ng/mL accounted for 36.3% of the participants, and the concentration lower than 30 ng/mL for 84.1%. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that the determinants of low 25(OH)D status were being born during autumn or winter months and a lack of VitD-related multivitamin supplementation. The relative risk was 1.7 for both autumn (95% CI, 1.1–2.6) and winter (95% CI, 1.1–2.5) births (p
< 0.05). VitD-related multivitamin supplementation more than once a day during pregnancy reduced the risk of VitD deficiency [adjusted OR (aOR) = 0.6, 95% CI (0.45–1.0) for VitD supplementation] (p
< 0.05). VitD deficiency and insufficiency are common in newborns in Shanghai, China, and are independently associated with season and VitD supplementation. Our findings may assist future efforts to correct low levels of 25(OH)D in Shanghai mothers and their newborn children.
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