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The Role of Intestinal Bacteria Overgrowth in Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 30130-100, Brazil
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These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2014, 6(12), 5583-5599; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6125583
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 November 2014 / Published: 3 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. It is a progressive disorder involving a spectrum of conditions that include pure steatosis without inflammation, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. The key factor in the pathophysiology of NAFLD is insulin resistance that determines lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes, which may be followed by lipid peroxidation, production of reactive oxygen species and consequent inflammation. Recent studies suggest that the characteristics of the gut microbiota are altered in NAFLD, and also, that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) contributes to the pathogenesis of this condition. This review presents the chief findings from all the controlled studies that evaluated SIBO, gut permeability and endotoxemia in human NAFLD. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involving SIBO, lipid accumulation and development of NASH. The understanding of these mechanisms may allow the development of new targets for NASH treatment in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty liver; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; gut microbiota; endotoxemia; bacterial translocation fatty liver; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; gut microbiota; endotoxemia; bacterial translocation
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Ferolla, S.M.; Armiliato, G.N.A.; Couto, C.A.; Ferrari, T.C.A. The Role of Intestinal Bacteria Overgrowth in Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Nutrients 2014, 6, 5583-5599.

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