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Nutrients 2014, 6(12), 5419-5433;

Vitamin D Status in Malaysian Men and Its Associated Factors

Department of Pharmacology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Nutrition Science Program, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Department of Biochemistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 August 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bone Health)
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Vitamin D insufficiency is a global health problem. The data on vitamin D status in Malaysian men is insufficient. This study aimed to investigate vitamin D status among Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia and its associating factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 383 men aged 20 years and above, residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their age, ethnicity, body anthropometry and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were recorded. Their fasting blood was collected for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid (PTH), total calcium and inorganic phosphate assays. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D level <30 nmol/L and insufficiency as a serum 25(OH)D level between 30 and 50 nmol/L. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 0.5%, and insufficiency was 22.7%. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were more prevalent in the Malays compared to the Chinese. Being Chinese, older in age, having lower body mass index (BMI) and a high physical activity status were associated significantly with a higher serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.05). The serum PTH level was inversely associated with the serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.05). As a conclusion, a significant proportion of Malaysian men have vitamin D insufficiency, although deficiency is uncommon. Steps should be taken to correct the vitamin D status of these men. View Full-Text
Keywords: men; osteoporosis; parathyroid; vitamin D men; osteoporosis; parathyroid; vitamin D

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Chin, K.-Y.; Ima-Nirwana, S.; Ibrahim, S.; Mohamed, I.N.; Wan Ngah, W.Z. Vitamin D Status in Malaysian Men and Its Associated Factors. Nutrients 2014, 6, 5419-5433.

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