Next Article in Journal
Maize Prolamins Could Induce a Gluten-Like Cellular Immune Response in Some Celiac Disease Patients
Next Article in Special Issue
The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running
Previous Article in Journal
Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science
Open AccessReview

Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

1
Cell and Molecular Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Neurosciences Division, Center for Applied Medical Research, Navarra University, Pamplona 31008, Spain
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 4159-4173; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5104159
Received: 23 July 2013 / Revised: 9 September 2013 / Accepted: 23 September 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chocolate and Cocoa in Human Health)
One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: adenosine; adenosine receptors; adenosine receptor antagonist; caffeine; theobromine adenosine; adenosine receptors; adenosine receptor antagonist; caffeine; theobromine
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Franco, R.; Oñatibia-Astibia, A.; Martínez-Pinilla, E. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4159-4173.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop