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Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Association with Iron Deficiency in African Children

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Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), P.O. Box 230, Kilifi 80108, Kenya
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KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme-Accredited Research Centre, Open University, P.O. Box 230, Kilifi 80108, Kenya
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Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
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Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK
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Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, Big Data Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
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Medical Research Council (MRC) International Statistics and Epidemiology Group, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
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African Leadership in Vaccinology Expertise (Alive), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa
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Groupe de Recherche Action en Sante (GRAS), Ouagadougou 06 BP 10248, Burkina Faso
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Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe P.O. Box 49, Uganda
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South African Medical Research Council Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Analytics Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa
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MRC Unit The Gambia at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Banjul P.O. Box 273, The Gambia
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Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LG, UK
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South African Medical Research Council/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of the Witwatersrand, R68 Old Potchefstroom Road, Bertsham, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa
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Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
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Centre for Research on Genomics and Global Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20891-5635, USA
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Institute of Global Health Innovation, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College, London SW7 2NA, UK
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Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bruce W. Hollis
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071372
Received: 9 February 2022 / Revised: 9 March 2022 / Accepted: 15 March 2022 / Published: 25 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: A Global Perspective for Health)
Vitamin D regulates the master iron hormone hepcidin, and iron in turn alters vitamin D metabolism. Although vitamin D and iron deficiency are highly prevalent globally, little is known about their interactions in Africa. To evaluate associations between vitamin D and iron status we measured markers of iron status, inflammation, malaria parasitemia, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in 4509 children aged 0.3 months to 8 years living in Kenya, Uganda, Burkina Faso, The Gambia, and South Africa. Prevalence of iron deficiency was 35.1%, and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 0.6% and 7.8% as defined by 25(OH)D concentrations of <30 nmol/L and <50 nmol/L, respectively. Children with 25(OH)D concentrations of <50 nmol/L had a 98% increased risk of iron deficiency (OR 1.98 [95% CI 1.52, 2.58]) compared to those with 25(OH)D concentrations >75 nmol/L. 25(OH)D concentrations variably influenced individual markers of iron status. Inflammation interacted with 25(OH)D concentrations to predict ferritin levels. The link between vitamin D and iron status should be considered in strategies to manage these nutrient deficiencies in African children. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vitamin D deficiency; iron deficiency; hepcidin; ferritin; hemoglobin; iron; transferrin saturation; anemia; children; Africa Vitamin D deficiency; iron deficiency; hepcidin; ferritin; hemoglobin; iron; transferrin saturation; anemia; children; Africa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mogire, R.M.; Muriuki, J.M.; Morovat, A.; Mentzer, A.J.; Webb, E.L.; Kimita, W.; Ndungu, F.M.; Macharia, A.W.; Cutland, C.L.; Sirima, S.B.; Diarra, A.; Tiono, A.B.; Lule, S.A.; Madhi, S.A.; Prentice, A.M.; Bejon, P.; Pettifor, J.M.; Elliott, A.M.; Adeyemo, A.; Williams, T.N.; Atkinson, S.H. Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Association with Iron Deficiency in African Children. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1372. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071372

AMA Style

Mogire RM, Muriuki JM, Morovat A, Mentzer AJ, Webb EL, Kimita W, Ndungu FM, Macharia AW, Cutland CL, Sirima SB, Diarra A, Tiono AB, Lule SA, Madhi SA, Prentice AM, Bejon P, Pettifor JM, Elliott AM, Adeyemo A, Williams TN, Atkinson SH. Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Association with Iron Deficiency in African Children. Nutrients. 2022; 14(7):1372. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071372

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mogire, Reagan M., John M. Muriuki, Alireza Morovat, Alexander J. Mentzer, Emily L. Webb, Wandia Kimita, Francis M. Ndungu, Alex W. Macharia, Clare L. Cutland, Sodiomon B. Sirima, Amidou Diarra, Alfred B. Tiono, Swaib A. Lule, Shabir A. Madhi, Andrew M. Prentice, Philip Bejon, John M. Pettifor, Alison M. Elliott, Adebowale Adeyemo, Thomas N. Williams, and Sarah H. Atkinson. 2022. "Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Association with Iron Deficiency in African Children" Nutrients 14, no. 7: 1372. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071372

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