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Review

How Do We Assess Energy Availability and RED-S Risk Factors in Para Athletes?

1
Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, 0806 Oslo, Norway
2
Faculty of Health Promotion, Sport and Leisure Studies, University of Iceland, 105 Reykjavik, Iceland
3
Independent Researcher, Shoalhaven, NSW 2540, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandro Sartorio
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051068
Received: 7 January 2022 / Revised: 18 February 2022 / Accepted: 28 February 2022 / Published: 3 March 2022
Low energy availability (LEA) is considered to be the underlying cause of a number of maladaptations in athletes, including impaired physiological function, low bone mineral density (BMD), and hormonal dysfunction. This is collectively referred to as ‘Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport’ (RED-S). LEA is calculated through assessment of dietary energy intake (EI), exercise energy expenditure (EEE) and fat-free mass (FFM). The incidence of LEA in Paralympic athletes is relatively unknown; however, there are legitimate concerns that Para athletes may be at even higher risk of LEA than able-bodied athletes. Unfortunately, there are numerous issues with the application of LEA assessment tools and the criterion for diagnosis within the context of a Para population. The calculation of EEE, in particular, is limited by a distinct lack of published data that cover a range of impairments and activities. In addition, for several RED-S-related factors, it is difficult to distinguish whether they are truly related to LEA or a consequence of the athlete’s impairment and medical history. This narrative review outlines deficits and complexities when assessing RED-S and LEA in Para athletes, presents the information that we do have, and provides suggestions for future progress in this important area of sports nutrition. View Full-Text
Keywords: low energy availability; resting metabolic rate; hormones; bone health; assessment low energy availability; resting metabolic rate; hormones; bone health; assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jonvik, K.L.; Vardardottir, B.; Broad, E. How Do We Assess Energy Availability and RED-S Risk Factors in Para Athletes? Nutrients 2022, 14, 1068. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051068

AMA Style

Jonvik KL, Vardardottir B, Broad E. How Do We Assess Energy Availability and RED-S Risk Factors in Para Athletes? Nutrients. 2022; 14(5):1068. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051068

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jonvik, Kristin L., Birna Vardardottir, and Elizabeth Broad. 2022. "How Do We Assess Energy Availability and RED-S Risk Factors in Para Athletes?" Nutrients 14, no. 5: 1068. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051068

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