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Article

Interactions between Vitamin D Genetic Risk and Dietary Factors on Metabolic Disease-Related Outcomes in Ghanaian Adults

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Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Harry Nursten Building, Pepper Lane, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DZ, UK
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Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, P.O. Box 14281, AlFaiha 72853, Kuwait
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Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Accra Road, Kumasi GH233, Ghana
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Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, 85 Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
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Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Harry Nursten Building, Pepper Lane, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DZ, UK
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Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester, Riverside Campus, Chester CH1 4BJ, UK
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Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AH, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Connie Weaver
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2763; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132763
Received: 21 May 2022 / Revised: 22 June 2022 / Accepted: 27 June 2022 / Published: 4 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Lifestyle Interactions on Cardiometabolic Diseases)
The Ghanaian population is experiencing an upsurge in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to rapid urbanization. Besides dietary factors, vitamin D-related genetic determinants have also been shown to contribute to the development of obesity and T2D. Hence, we aimed to examine the interactions between dietary factors and vitamin D-related genetic variants on obesity and T2D related outcomes in a Ghanaian population. Three hundred and two healthy Ghanaian adults (25–60 years old) from Oforikrom, Municipality in Kumasi, Ghana were randomly recruited and had genetic tests, dietary consumption analysis, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements of glucose, HbA1c, insulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides taken. A significant interaction was identified between vitamin D-GRS and fiber intake (g/day) on BMI (pinteraction = 0.020) where those who were consuming low fiber (≤16.19 g/d) and carrying more than two risk alleles for vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.01) had a significantly higher BMI. In addition, an interaction between vitamin D-GRS and fat intake (g/day) on HbA1c (total fat, pinteraction = 0.029) was found, where participants who had a lower total fat intake (≤36.5 g/d), despite carrying more than two risk alleles, had significantly lower HbA1c (p = 0.049). In summary, our study has identified novel gene–diet interactions of vitamin D-GRS with dietary fiber and fat intakes on metabolic traits in Ghanaian adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ghana; gene–diet interaction; genetic risk score; metabolic traits; fiber; fat Ghana; gene–diet interaction; genetic risk score; metabolic traits; fiber; fat
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alathari, B.E.; Nyakotey, D.A.; Bawah, A.-M.; Lovegrove, J.A.; Annan, R.A.; Ellahi, B.; Vimaleswaran, K.S. Interactions between Vitamin D Genetic Risk and Dietary Factors on Metabolic Disease-Related Outcomes in Ghanaian Adults. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2763. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132763

AMA Style

Alathari BE, Nyakotey DA, Bawah A-M, Lovegrove JA, Annan RA, Ellahi B, Vimaleswaran KS. Interactions between Vitamin D Genetic Risk and Dietary Factors on Metabolic Disease-Related Outcomes in Ghanaian Adults. Nutrients. 2022; 14(13):2763. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132763

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alathari, Buthaina E., David A. Nyakotey, Abdul-Malik Bawah, Julie A. Lovegrove, Reginald A. Annan, Basma Ellahi, and Karani S. Vimaleswaran. 2022. "Interactions between Vitamin D Genetic Risk and Dietary Factors on Metabolic Disease-Related Outcomes in Ghanaian Adults" Nutrients 14, no. 13: 2763. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132763

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