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Supplement Intake in Recreational Vegan, Vegetarian, and Omnivorous Endurance Runners—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2)
 
 
Article

Sex Differences in Supplement Intake in Recreational Endurance Runners—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2)

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Department of Subject Didactics and Educational Research and Development, University College of Teacher Education Tyrol, 6010 Innsbruck, Austria
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Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
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Life and Health Science Cluster Tirol, Subcluster Health/Medicine/Psychology, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
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Research Center Medical Humanities, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
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Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 9177948979, Iran
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Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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AdventureV & Change2V, 6135 Stans, Austria
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Institute of Nutrition, University of Gießen, 35390 Gießen, Germany
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Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
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Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jesus Seco-Calvo
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082776
Received: 15 July 2021 / Revised: 3 August 2021 / Accepted: 11 August 2021 / Published: 13 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Nutritional Status and Functionality)
It has been well-documented that female and male athletes differ in many physiological and psychological characteristics related to endurance performance. This sex-based difference appears to be associated with their nutritional demands including the patterns of supplement intake. However, there is a paucity of research addressing the sex differences in supplement intake amongst distance runners. The present study aimed to investigate and compare supplement intake between female and male distance runners (10 km, half-marathon, (ultra-)marathon) and the potential associations with diet type and race distance. A total of 317 runners participated in an online survey, and 220 distance runners (127 females and 93 males) made up the final sample after a multi-stage data clearance. Participants were also assigned to dietary (omnivorous, vegetarian, vegan) and race distance (10-km, half-marathon, marathon/ultra-marathon) subgroups. Sociodemographic characteristics and the patterns of supplement intake including type, frequency, dosage, and brands were collected using a questionnaire. One-way ANOVA and logistic regression were used for data analysis. A total of 54.3% of female runners and 47.3% male runners reported consuming supplements regularly. The frequency of supplement intake was similar between females and males (generally or across dietary and distance subgroups). There was no significant relationship for sex alone or sex interactions with diet type and race distance on supplement intake (p < 0.05). However, a non-significant higher intake of vitamin and mineral (but not CHO/protein) supplements was reported by vegan and vegetarian (but not by omnivorous) females compared to their male counterparts. In summary, despite the reported findings, sex could not be considered as a strong modulator of supplement intake among different groups of endurance runners. View Full-Text
Keywords: gender differences; supplement; ergogenic aids; endurance; running; athletes; vegan; vegetarian; plant-based gender differences; supplement; ergogenic aids; endurance; running; athletes; vegan; vegetarian; plant-based
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wirnitzer, K.; Motevalli, M.; Tanous, D.R.; Gregori, M.; Wirnitzer, G.; Leitzmann, C.; Rosemann, T.; Knechtle, B. Sex Differences in Supplement Intake in Recreational Endurance Runners—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2). Nutrients 2021, 13, 2776. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082776

AMA Style

Wirnitzer K, Motevalli M, Tanous DR, Gregori M, Wirnitzer G, Leitzmann C, Rosemann T, Knechtle B. Sex Differences in Supplement Intake in Recreational Endurance Runners—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2). Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2776. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082776

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wirnitzer, Katharina, Mohamad Motevalli, Derrick R. Tanous, Martina Gregori, Gerold Wirnitzer, Claus Leitzmann, Thomas Rosemann, and Beat Knechtle. 2021. "Sex Differences in Supplement Intake in Recreational Endurance Runners—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2)" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2776. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082776

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