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Article

Inflammation and the Association of Vitamin D and Depressive Symptomatology

1
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Leipzig Medical Center, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
2
Institute of Psychology, Universität der Bundeswehr München, 85577 Neubiberg, Germany
3
Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig Medical Center, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
4
LIFE—Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
5
Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology (IMISE), University of Leipzig, 04107 Leipzig, Germany
6
Institute of Social Medicine, Occupational Health and Public Health, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
7
Global Brain Health Institute (GBHI), Trinity College Dublin, D02 PN40 Dublin, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: A. Catharine Ross
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061972
Received: 29 April 2021 / Revised: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 4 June 2021 / Published: 8 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Nutrients on Immune and Inflammatory Responses)
Depression and vitamin D deficiency are major public health problems. The existing literature indicates the complex relationship between depression and vitamin D. The purpose of this study was to examine whether this relationship is moderated or mediated by inflammation. A community sample (n = 7162) from the LIFE-Adult-Study was investigated, for whom depressive symptoms were assessed via the German version of CES-D scale and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and inflammatory markers (IL-6 and CRP levels, WBC count) were quantified. Mediation analyses were performed using Hayes’ PROCESS macro and regression analyses were conducted to test moderation effects. There was a significant negative correlation between CES-D and 25(OH)D, and positive associations between inflammatory markers and CES-D scores. Only WBC partially mediated the association between 25(OH)D levels and depressive symptoms both in a simple mediation model (ab: −0.0042) and a model including covariates (ab: −0.0011). None of the inflammatory markers showed a moderation effect on the association between 25(OH)D levels and depressive symptoms. This present work highlighted the complex relationship between vitamin D, depressive symptoms and inflammation. Future studies are needed to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation and depressive symptomatology for causality assessment. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; vitamin D; inflammation; mediation; moderation; LIFE-Adult-Study depression; vitamin D; inflammation; mediation; moderation; LIFE-Adult-Study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dogan-Sander, E.; Mergl, R.; Willenberg, A.; Baber, R.; Wirkner, K.; Riedel-Heller, S.G.; Röhr, S.; Schmidt, F.M.; Schomerus, G.; Sander, C. Inflammation and the Association of Vitamin D and Depressive Symptomatology. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1972. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061972

AMA Style

Dogan-Sander E, Mergl R, Willenberg A, Baber R, Wirkner K, Riedel-Heller SG, Röhr S, Schmidt FM, Schomerus G, Sander C. Inflammation and the Association of Vitamin D and Depressive Symptomatology. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):1972. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061972

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dogan-Sander, Ezgi, Roland Mergl, Anja Willenberg, Ronny Baber, Kerstin Wirkner, Steffi G. Riedel-Heller, Susanne Röhr, Frank M. Schmidt, Georg Schomerus, and Christian Sander. 2021. "Inflammation and the Association of Vitamin D and Depressive Symptomatology" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 1972. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061972

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