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Creatine for Exercise and Sports Performance, with Recovery Considerations for Healthy Populations

1
Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39759, USA
2
Exercise & Performance Nutrition Laboratory, College of Science, Technology, and Health, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO 63301, USA
3
Sports Medicine, Mayo Clinic Health System, La Crosse, WI 54601, USA
4
Department of Nutrition and Family Sciences, University of Central Arkansas, Conway, AR 72035, USA
5
Health, Kinesiology, and Sport Management Department, University of Wisconsin—Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53141, USA
6
Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Elena Barbieri
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061915
Received: 19 March 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 30 May 2021 / Published: 2 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creatine Supplementation for Health and Clinical Diseases)
Creatine is one of the most studied and popular ergogenic aids for athletes and recreational weightlifters seeking to improve sport and exercise performance, augment exercise training adaptations, and mitigate recovery time. Studies consistently reveal that creatine supplementation exerts positive ergogenic effects on single and multiple bouts of short-duration, high-intensity exercise activities, in addition to potentiating exercise training adaptations. In this respect, supplementation consistently demonstrates the ability to enlarge the pool of intracellular creatine, leading to an amplification of the cell’s ability to resynthesize adenosine triphosphate. This intracellular expansion is associated with several performance outcomes, including increases in maximal strength (low-speed strength), maximal work output, power production (high-speed strength), sprint performance, and fat-free mass. Additionally, creatine supplementation may speed up recovery time between bouts of intense exercise by mitigating muscle damage and promoting the faster recovery of lost force-production potential. Conversely, contradictory findings exist in the literature regarding the potential ergogenic benefits of creatine during intermittent and continuous endurance-type exercise, as well as in those athletic tasks where an increase in body mass may hinder enhanced performance. The purpose of this review was to summarize the existing literature surrounding the efficacy of creatine supplementation on exercise and sports performance, along with recovery factors in healthy populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: supplementation; ergogenic aid; athletic performance; weightlifting; resistance exercise; training; muscular power; recovery; muscular adaptation; muscle damage supplementation; ergogenic aid; athletic performance; weightlifting; resistance exercise; training; muscular power; recovery; muscular adaptation; muscle damage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wax, B.; Kerksick, C.M.; Jagim, A.R.; Mayo, J.J.; Lyons, B.C.; Kreider, R.B. Creatine for Exercise and Sports Performance, with Recovery Considerations for Healthy Populations. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1915. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061915

AMA Style

Wax B, Kerksick CM, Jagim AR, Mayo JJ, Lyons BC, Kreider RB. Creatine for Exercise and Sports Performance, with Recovery Considerations for Healthy Populations. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):1915. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061915

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wax, Benjamin, Chad M. Kerksick, Andrew R. Jagim, Jerry J. Mayo, Brian C. Lyons, and Richard B. Kreider. 2021. "Creatine for Exercise and Sports Performance, with Recovery Considerations for Healthy Populations" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 1915. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061915

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