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Systematic Review

Does Protein Supplementation Support Adaptations to Arduous Concurrent Exercise Training? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Military Based Applications

1
HQ Army Recruiting and Initial Training Command, UK Ministry of Defence, Upavon, Wiltshire SN9 6BE, UK
2
Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
3
Defence Science and Technology, Porton Down, UK Ministry of Defence, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shanon L. Casperson
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051416
Received: 19 March 2021 / Revised: 16 April 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 23 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)
We evaluated the impact of protein supplementation on adaptations to arduous concurrent training in healthy adults with potential applications to individuals undergoing military training. Peer-reviewed papers published in English meeting the population, intervention, comparison and outcome criteria were included. Database searches were completed in PubMed, Web of science and SPORTDiscus. Study quality was evaluated using the COnsensus based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments checklist. Of 11 studies included, nine focused on performance, six on body composition and four on muscle recovery. Cohen’s d effect sizes showed that protein supplementation improved performance outcomes in response to concurrent training (ES = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.08–1.70). When analysed separately, improvements in muscle strength (SMD = +4.92 kg, 95% CI = −2.70–12.54 kg) were found, but not in aerobic endurance. Gains in fat-free mass (SMD = +0.75 kg, 95% CI = 0.44–1.06 kg) and reductions in fat-mass (SMD = −0.99, 95% CI = −1.43–0.23 kg) were greater with protein supplementation. Most studies did not report protein turnover, nitrogen balance and/or total daily protein intake. Therefore, further research is warranted. However, our findings infer that protein supplementation may support lean-mass accretion and strength gains during arduous concurrent training in physical active populations, including military recruits. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein supplementation; training; exercise; adaptations; concurrent training protein supplementation; training; exercise; adaptations; concurrent training
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chapman, S.; Chung, H.C.; Rawcliffe, A.J.; Izard, R.; Smith, L.; Roberts, J.D. Does Protein Supplementation Support Adaptations to Arduous Concurrent Exercise Training? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Military Based Applications. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1416. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051416

AMA Style

Chapman S, Chung HC, Rawcliffe AJ, Izard R, Smith L, Roberts JD. Does Protein Supplementation Support Adaptations to Arduous Concurrent Exercise Training? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Military Based Applications. Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1416. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051416

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chapman, Shaun, Henry C. Chung, Alex J. Rawcliffe, Rachel Izard, Lee Smith, and Justin D. Roberts. 2021. "Does Protein Supplementation Support Adaptations to Arduous Concurrent Exercise Training? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Military Based Applications" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1416. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051416

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